Are K-12 learners motivated in physical education? A meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT Previous studies devoted to K-12 learner motivation in physical education share a general assumption that students may lack motivation. This meta-analytic study examined published original studies (n = 79) to determine students' motivation level and the association between motivation and outcomes. Original means of motivation measures were converted and aggregated to determine motivation levels. Correlation effect sizes were calculated to determine the association between motivation and outcome measures. The analyses revealed that K-12 students are motivated regardless of the theoretical constructs used in the studies (M > 50). The correlation effect sizes (r = .20-.30, p < .05) indicate a weak association between motivation and outcome. The findings suggest a need to involve meaningful learning and pedagogy variables in motivation research.