Increase in Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis Does Not Prevent Muscle Loss but Increased Tumor Size in a Mouse Model of Acute Cancer-Induced Cachexia

The Sheila and David Fuente Graduate Program in Cancer Biology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 03/2012; 7(3):e33426. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033426
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cancer-associated cachexia is a complex metabolic condition characterized by the progressive loss of body fat and deterioration of muscle mass. Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cachexia are incompletely understood, previous studies have suggested mitochondrial dysfunction in murine models of cancer cachexia. To better understand the metabolic shift in cancer-induced cachexia, we studied the effects of enhanced oxidative capacity on muscle wasting using transgenic mice over-expressing Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma Co-activator-1α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle in a Lewis lung carcinoma-implanted model. Increased mitochondrial biogenesis was observed in the skeletal muscle of tumor-implanted mice. However, these increases did not prevent or reverse muscle wasting in mice harboring tumors. Moreover, tumor size was increased in muscle PGC-1α over-expressing mice. We found similar levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines in tumor-implanted animals, which was not affected by increased muscle expression of PGC-1α. Our data indicated that increased mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle is not sufficient to rescue tumor-associated, acute muscle loss, and could promote tumor growth, possibly through the release of myokines.

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    ABSTRACT: Aerobic exercise training (AET) induces several skeletal muscle changes, improving aerobic exercise capacity and health. Conversely, to the positive effects of AET, the cachexia syndrome is characterized by skeletal muscle wasting. Cachexia is a multifactorial disorder that occurs and is associated with other chronic diseases such as heart failure and cancer. In these diseases, an overactivation of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy systems associated with a reduction in protein synthesis culminates in severe skeletal muscle wasting and, in the last instance, patient's death. In contrast, AET may recycle and enhance many protein expression and enzyme activities, counteracting metabolism impairment and muscle atrophy. Therefore, the aim of the current review was to discuss the supposed therapeutic effects of AET on skeletal muscle wasting in both cardiac and cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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    ABSTRACT: Although there are currently no approved treatments for cancer cachexia, there is an intensified interest in developing therapies because of the high mortality index associated with muscle wasting diseases. Successful treatment of the cachectic patient focuses on improving or maintaining body weight and musculoskeletal function. Nutraceutical compounds, including the natural phytochemical quercetin, are being examined as potential treatments because of their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of quercetin supplementation on the progression of cachexia in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc)(Min/+) mouse model of colorectal cancer. At 15 wk of age, C57BL/6 and male Apc(Min/+) mice were supplemented with 25 mg/kg of quercetin or vehicle solution mix of Tang juice and water (V) daily for 3 wk. Body weight, strength, neuromuscular performance, and fatigue were assessed before and after quercetin or V interventions. Indicators of metabolic dysfunction and inflammatory signaling were also assessed. During the treatment period, the relative decrease in body weight in the Apc(Min/+) mice gavaged with V (Apc(Min/+)V; -14% ± 2.3) was higher than in control mice gavaged with V (+0.6% ± 1.0), control mice gavaged with quercetin (-2% ± 1.0), and Apc(Min/+) mice gavaged with quercetin (Apc(Min/+)Q; -9% ± 1.3). At 18 wk of age, the loss of grip strength and muscle mass shown in Apc(Min/+)V mice was significantly attenuated (P < 0.05) in Apc(Min/+)Q mice. Furthermore, Apc(Min/+)V mice had an induction of plasma interleukin-6 and muscle signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation, which were significantly (P < 0.05) mitigated in Apc(Min/+)Q mice, despite having a similar tumor burden. Quercetin treatment did not improve treadmill run-time-to-fatigue, hyperglycemia, or hyperlipidemia in cachectic Apc(Min/+) mice. Overall, quercetin supplementation positively affected several aspects of cachexia progression in mice and warrants further exploration as a potential anticachectic therapeutic.
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