Veratric acid ameliorates hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in Wistar rats fed an atherogenic diet.
ABSTRACT An investigation was made to reveal the protective effects of veratric acid (VA), a phenolic acid against atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Male albino Wistar rats were fed with atherogenic diet (4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid, and 0.5% 2-thiouracil) daily for 30 days and treated with VA (40 mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of 30 days. Rats fed with atherogenic diet showed significant (P < 0.05) elevation in the level of plasma lipids, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid peroxides) and significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the activities of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione) antioxidants in erythrocytes, plasma, and tissues (liver, kidney, and aorta). Oral administration of VA (40 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days to atherogenic diet fed rats markedly attenuates systolic, diastolic blood pressure and lipid peroxidation products. Further, VA treatment significantly improved enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants levels and showed beneficial effects on lipid profile in atherogenic diet rats. All the above alterations were supported by histopathological observations. These results indicate that oral administration of VA ameliorates atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats by its free radical scavenging; improving the antioxidants and lipid lowering properties.
- Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 01/1986; 29(2):107-28. · 4.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hyperlipidemia is a known risk factor for fatty infiltration of the liver, a condition that can progress to cirrhosis and liver failure. The objectives of this study were to document the prevalence of fatty infiltration in the livers of hyperlipidemic patients and to identify the predictor variables associated with this condition. Over an 18-month recruitment period, clinical, biochemical, and radiologic assessments were performed in a cross-sectional manner in 95 adult patients referred to an urban hospital-based lipid clinic for evaluation and management of hyperlipidemia. The mean (+/-SD) age of the patients was 55 +/- 13 years. Forty-eight (51%) were male. Fifty-two patients (55%) had hypercholesterolemia, 25 (26%) severe hypertriglyceridemia, 14 (15%) mixed hyperlipidemia, and 4 (4%) moderate hypertriglyceridemia. Obesity and diabetes were present in 36 (38%) and 12 (12%) of cases, respectively. A total of 61 (64%) patients had elevated liver enzyme tests. The most common enzyme abnormalities were an elevated serum ALT in 45 (47%) and GGT in 43 (45%) of patients. Ultrasound findings revealed diffuse fatty liver in 47 patients (50%), of which 21 cases (22%) were mild, 18 (19%) moderate, and 8 (9%) severe. The majority of patients with hypercholesterolemia [35/52 (67%)] had normal ultrasounds, whereas severe hypertriglyceridemia and mixed hyperlipidemia were frequently associated with radiologic evidence of fatty liver (odds ratios 5.9 and 5.1 respectively, P < 0.01). Independent predictors of fatty liver were; AST (P = 0.001), hyperglycemia (P = 0.02), and age (P = 0.04). In a model incorporating known risk factors for fatty liver, diabetes was the only risk factor other than hypertriglyceridemia that was significantly associated with fatty infiltration. No such effect was seen with age, gender, obesity, or alcohol consumption. In conclusions, the results of this study indicate that ultrasonographic evidence of fatty infiltration of the liver is evident in approximately 50% of patients with hyperlipidemia. Hypertriglyceridemia is the lipid profile most often associated with this condition. Serum AST values, hyperglycemia, and age independently predict the presence of fatty infiltration, while hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes are the only risk factors that significantly increase the risk of fatty infiltration in hyperlipidemic patients.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 10/2000; 45(10):1929-34. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The atherogenic oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein is suggested to occur in the aortic intima. There is reasonable evidence to suggest that antioxidants might be beneficial in preventing or retarding the progression of atherosclerosis. Exercise, estrogens, and substitution of polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat are beneficial in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Yet, paradoxically, they are capable of inducing an oxidative stress. To reconcile with this paradox, we postulate that under certain conditions an oxidative stress might be beneficial by inducing antioxidant enzymes in arterial cells. However, those with genetic deficiency in antioxidant enzymes or those who poorly respond to oxidative stress or those with overwhelming plasma oxidative stress might need additional antioxidant protection.Free Radical Research 10/2000; 33(3):197-215. · 3.28 Impact Factor