What is the "best" atomic charge model to describe through-space charge-transfer excitations?
ABSTRACT We investigate the efficiency of several partial atomic charge models (Mulliken, Hirshfeld, Bader, Natural, Merz-Kollman and ChelpG) for investigating the through-space charge-transfer in push-pull organic compounds with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory approaches. The results of these models are compared to benchmark values obtained by determining the difference of total densities between the ground and excited states. Both model push-pull oligomers and two classes of "real-life" organic dyes (indoline and diketopyrrolopyrrole) used as sensitisers in solar cell applications have been considered. Though the difference of dipole moments between the ground and excited states is reproduced by most approaches, no atomic charge model is fully satisfactory for reproducing the distance and amount of charge transferred that are provided by the density picture. Overall, the partitioning schemes fitting the electrostatic potential (e.g. Merz-Kollman) stand as the most consistent compromises in the framework of simulating through-space charge-transfer, whereas the other models tend to yield qualitatively inconsistent values.
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ABSTRACT: Short oxygen-halogen interactions have been known in organic chemistry since the 1950s and recently have been exploited in the design of supramolecular assemblies. The present survey of protein and nucleic acid structures reveals similar halogen bonds as potentially stabilizing inter- and intramolecular interactions that can affect ligand binding and molecular folding. A halogen bond in biomolecules can be defined as a short C-X...O-Y interaction (C-X is a carbon-bonded chlorine, bromine, or iodine, and O-Y is a carbonyl, hydroxyl, charged carboxylate, or phosphate group), where the X...O distance is less than or equal to the sums of the respective van der Waals radii (3.27 A for Cl...O, 3.37 A for Br...O, and 3.50 A for I...O) and can conform to the geometry seen in small molecules, with the C-X...O angle approximately 165 degrees (consistent with a strong directional polarization of the halogen) and the X...O-Y angle approximately 120 degrees . Alternative geometries can be imposed by the more complex environment found in biomolecules, depending on which of the two types of donor systems are involved in the interaction: (i) the lone pair electrons of oxygen (and, to a lesser extent, nitrogen and sulfur) atoms or (ii) the delocalized pi -electrons of peptide bonds or carboxylate or amide groups. Thus, the specific geometry and diversity of the interacting partners of halogen bonds offer new and versatile tools for the design of ligands as drugs and materials in nanotechnology.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2004; 101(48):16789-94. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We apply the long-range correction (LC) scheme for exchange functionals of density functional theory to time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and examine its efficiency in dealing with the serious problems of TDDFT, i.e., the underestimations of Rydberg excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and charge-transfer excitation energies. By calculating vertical excitation energies of typical molecules, it was found that LC-TDDFT gives accurate excitation energies, within an error of 0.5 eV, and reasonable oscillator strengths, while TDDFT employing a pure functional provides 1.5 eV lower excitation energies and two orders of magnitude lower oscillator strengths for the Rydberg excitations. It was also found that LC-TDDFT clearly reproduces the correct asymptotic behavior of the charge-transfer excitation energy of ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene dimer for the long intramolecular distance, unlike a conventional far-nucleus asymptotic correction scheme. It is, therefore, presumed that poor TDDFT results for pure functionals may be due to their lack of a long-range orbital-orbital interaction.The Journal of Chemical Physics 06/2004; 120(18):8425-33. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is well-known that time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) yields substantial errors for the excitation energies of charge-transfer (CT) excited states, when approximate standard exchange-correlation (xc) functionals are used, for example, SVWN, BLYP, or B3LYP. Also, the correct 1/R asymptotic behavior of CT states with respect to a distance coordinate R between the separated charges of the CT state is not reproduced by TDDFT employing these xc-functionals. Here, we demonstrate by analysis of the TDDFT equations that the first failure is due to the self-interaction error in the orbital energies from the ground-state DFT calculation, while the latter is a similar self-interaction error in TDDFT arising through the electron transfer in the CT state. Possible correction schemes, such as inclusion of exact Hartree-Fock or exact Kohn-Sham exchange, as well as aspects of the exact xc-functional are discussed in this context. Furthermore, a practical approach is proposed which combines the benefits of TDDFT and configuration interaction singles (CIS) and which does not suffer from electron-transfer self-interaction. The latter approach is applied to a (1,4)-phenylene-linked zincbacteriochlorin-bacteriochlorin complex and to a bacteriochlorophyll-spheroidene complex, in which CT states may play important roles in energy and electron-transfer processes. The errors of TDDFT alone for the CT states are demonstrated, and reasonable estimates for the true excitation energies of these states are given.Journal of the American Chemical Society 04/2004; 126(12):4007-16. · 10.68 Impact Factor