Quantifying the incremental cost of complications associated with mitral valve surgery in the United States
ABSTRACT The goal of this study was to quantify the net increase in resource use associated with complications after isolated mitral valve surgery.
Deidentified patient-level claims data on a random sample of mitral valve operations performed in the United States from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2007, were obtained from the National Inpatient Sample (n = 16,788). Patients with major concomitant cardiac procedures were excluded from the analysis for a net sample size of 6297 patients. Risk-adjusted median total hospital costs and length of stay were analyzed by major complications, including pneumonia, sepsis, stroke, renal failure requiring hemodialysis, cardiac tamponade, myocardial infarction, gastrointestinal bleed, and venous thromboembolism.
There were a total of 1323 complication events that occurred in 1089 patients. The most common complication was pneumonia (n = 346, 5.5%), which was associated with a $29,692 increase in hospital costs and a 10.2-day increase in median length of stay (P < .001). The most costly complication was cardiac tamponade, which resulted in an increase in hospital cost of $56,547 and an increase in length of stay of 19.3 days (P < .001). There was a stepwise association between the hospital costs and length of stay and the number of complications per patient (P < .001). There was also a significant association between the discharge location and the occurrence of a complication, with 25% more patients who underwent routine home discharge when there were no complications (P < .001).
In patients undergoing isolated mitral valve surgery, postoperative complications were associated with significant increases in mortality, hospital costs, and length of stay, as well as with discharge location. With growing national attention to improving quality and containing costs, it is important to understand the nature and impact of complications on outcomes and costs.
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ABSTRACT: Within the field of cardiac surgery, several strategies have been adopted in an effort to address contributors to increasing health care costs. Limited data are available on cost analysis within the field of mitral valve surgery. The purpose of our investigation was to analyze cost differences between mitral valve repair and replacement. The analysis was based on the subset of patients with isolated mitral valve repair or replacement (International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, clinical codes 35.12, 35.23, and 35.24) using data from the 2005 to 2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, which is the largest all-payer database in the United States. We examined the selective contribution of patient demographics, hospital characteristics, and postoperative complications to cost by using hierarchical linear mixed models. We used mixed effects logistic regression models to identify factors that influence extreme cost expenditures in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery. Independent predictors of increased cost for both repair and replacement on multivariable analysis included increased age, prior myocardial infarction, heart failure, neurologic deficit, renal disease, emergent status, and Medicare or Medicaid insurance type. The presence of postoperative complications also predicted increased costs. However, the model for repair only yielded a reduction in variability of 13%, while the model for replacement produced a reduction of 22%. In this analysis, the most important contributors to cost for mitral valve repair and replacement are preoperative patient comorbidities, most notably history of myocardial infarction and heart failure, emergent admission status, and postoperative complications. The variables in our model failed to account for a large proportion of the variability in cost. This would suggest that future analyses exploring differential procedure costs between hospitals must look for factors beyond patient baseline characteristics and postoperative outcomes.The Annals of thoracic surgery 08/2012; 94(5):1429-36. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.05.100 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In the setting of chronic stable angina, successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of chronic total occlusions (CTO) has been shown to produce significant symptom improvement with some evidence for survival benefit. However, the economic basis for this procedure has not been established compared with optimal medical treatment (OMT) of chronic stable angina. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of CTO-PCI in chronic stable angina using a Markov model. DESIGN: The transition probabilities, utilities and costs related to CTO-PCI and OMT used to inform the model were derived from literature and our experience. Implications with respect to cost and quality of life were calculated. Sensitivity analyses were based on factors noted to influence model outcome. RESULTS: In the reference case, mean age 60 years, rate of successful CTO-PCI 67.9%, and mean transition probabilities, utilities and costs as defined by literature and clinical experience, the strategy of CTO-PCI incurred higher costs relative to OMT (US$31 512 vs US$27 805), but also accumulated greater quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (2.38 vs 1.99), yielding a cost-effectiveness ratio of US$9505 per QALY. Sensitivity analyses showed the utility of OMT and utilities postsuccessful and postunsuccessful CTO-PCI to be the most influential drivers of outcome. Procedural success held limited influence over model outcome at particular utility threshold values. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the supporting evidence, this decision-analytic model suggests that CTO-PCI is cost-effective in a patient population with severe symptoms. Quality-of-life metrics should be employed in future appropriateness criteria developed for CTO-PCI.Heart (British Cardiac Society) 10/2012; 98(24). DOI:10.1136/heartjnl-2012-302581 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent computational methods enabling patient-specific simulations of native and prosthetic heart valves are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on two critical components of such methods: (1) anatomically realistic finite element models for simulating the structural dynamics of heart valves; and (2) fluid structure interaction methods for simulating the performance of heart valves in a patient-specific beating left ventricle. It is shown that the significant progress achieved in both fronts paves the way toward clinically relevant computational models that can simulate the performance of a range of heart valves, native and prosthetic, in a patient-specific left heart environment. The significant algorithmic and model validation challenges that need to be tackled in the future to realize this goal are also discussed.Journal of Biomechanics 11/2012; 46(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.10.026 · 2.75 Impact Factor