Developing and assessing cardiovascular biomarkers
ABSTRACT Atherosclerosis is a slow process that over time can lead to fatal events. Early identification and prediction of future risk can allow for preventive strategies to be instituted. There is an increasing interest in utilizing novel biomarkers in cardiovascular disease screening and management. These novel biomarkers may help in cardiovascular disease risk assessment and treatment monitoring, and some may be treatment targets. To be useful for risk prediction, novel biomarkers need to show a significant association with cardiovascular disease events and bring additional value in risk stratification when added to known risk prediction models. Biomarkers used for treatment monitoring need to show that they can serve as good surrogates of cardiovascular disease status. In this article, we present 3 biomarkers that are currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in cardiovascular disease management and risk assessment: C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, and myeloperoxidase. Other new biomarkers have also been shown recently to help in cardiovascular disease risk prediction and management. In this article, we will review 2 of these new biomarkers: cardiac troponin T measured by a highly sensitive assay and brain natriuretic peptide.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate associations between Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) mass and activity with risk of dementia and its subtypes. Methods Analysis were completed on 3320 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a population-based longitudinal study of community-dwelling adults age ≥65 years followed for an average of 5.4 years. Baseline serum Lp-PLA2 mass was measured using a sandwich enzyme immunoassay and Lp-PLA2 activity utilized a tritiated-platelet activating factor activity assay. Cox proportional hazards regression assessed the relative risk of incident dementia with higher baseline Lp-PLA2 adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk factors, inflammation markers and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. Results Each standard deviation higher Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were related to increased risk of dementia (fully adjusted HR: 1.11 per SD, 95% CI: 1.00–1.24 for mass; HR: 1.12 per SD, 95% CI: 1.00–1.26 for activity). Persons in the highest quartile of Lp-PLA2 mass were 50% more likely to develop dementia than those in the lowest quartile in adjusted models (HR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.08–2.06). Among dementia subtypes, the risk of AD was increased two-fold in the highest compared to lowest quartile of Lp-PLA2 mass (adjusted HR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.22–3.21). Results were attenuated in models of mixed dementia and VaD. Lp-PLA2 activity also doubled the risk of mixed dementia in the highest compared to lowest quartile (HR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.12–4.373). Interpretation These data support Lp-PLA2 as a risk factor for dementia independent of CVD and its risk factors. Further study is required to clarify the role of Lp-PLA2-related mechanisms in dementia subtypes.Atherosclerosis 07/2011; 7(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.05.862 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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