Intraneuronal Aβ detection in 5xFAD mice by a new Aβ-specific antibody

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
Molecular Neurodegeneration (Impact Factor: 6.56). 03/2012; 7(1):8. DOI: 10.1186/1750-1326-7-8
Source: PubMed


The form(s) of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) associated with the pathology characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. In particular, the neurotoxicity of intraneuronal Aβ accumulation is an issue of considerable controversy; even the existence of Aβ deposits within neurons has recently been challenged by Winton and co-workers. These authors purport that it is actually intraneuronal APP that is being detected by antibodies thought to be specific for Aβ. To further address this issue, an anti-Aβ antibody was developed (MOAB-2) that specifically detects Aβ, but not APP. This antibody allows for the further evaluation of the early accumulation of intraneuronal Aβ in transgenic mice with increased levels of human Aβ in 5xFAD and 3xTg mice.
MOAB-2 (mouse IgG2b) is a pan-specific, high-titer antibody to Aβ residues 1-4 as demonstrated by biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses (IHC), particularly compared to 6E10 (a commonly used commercial antibody to Aβ residues 3-8). MOAB-2 did not detect APP or APP-CTFs in cell culture media/lysates (HEK-APPSwe or HEK-APPSwe/BACE1) or in brain homogenates from transgenic mice expressing 5 familial AD (FAD) mutation (5xFAD mice). Using IHC on 5xFAD brain tissue, MOAB-2 immunoreactivity co-localized with C-terminal antibodies specific for Aβ40 and Aβ42. MOAB-2 did not co-localize with either N- or C-terminal antibodies to APP. In addition, no MOAB-2-immunoreactivity was observed in the brains of 5xFAD/BACE-/- mice, although significant amounts of APP were detected by N- and C-terminal antibodies to APP, as well as by 6E10. In both 5xFAD and 3xTg mouse brain tissue, MOAB-2 co-localized with cathepsin-D, a marker for acidic organelles, further evidence for intraneuronal Aβ, distinct from Aβ associated with the cell membrane. MOAB-2 demonstrated strong intraneuronal and extra-cellular immunoreactivity in 5xFAD and 3xTg mouse brain tissues.
Both intraneuronal Aβ accumulation and extracellular Aβ deposition was demonstrated in 5xFAD mice and 3xTg mice with MOAB-2, an antibody that will help differentiate intracellular Aβ from APP. However, further investigation is required to determine whether a molecular mechanism links the presence of intraneuronal Aβ with neurotoxicity. As well, understanding the relevance of these observations to human AD patients is critical.

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    • "- react with APP ( Aho et al . , 2010 ) . However , different methods have been used to demonstrate that Ab is present inside neurons ( for a review see Cuello et al . , 2012 ) : ( i ) a specific antibody recognizing the N - terminal end of Ab that does not cross - react with APP allowed to detect intraneuronal Ab in 3Â Tg and 5Â FAD mice brains ( Youmans et al . , 2012 ) ; ( ii ) conformation - specific antibodies have been used to detect intraneuronal Ab in 3Â Tg ( Wirths and Bayer , 2012 ; Wirths et al . , 2012 ) ; ( iii ) a multi dimensional study using high - resolution microscopy , mass spectrometry analysis , and ELISAs has shown that Ab accumulates inside neurons of an AD - like transgenic rat "
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    ABSTRACT: For several years Amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) has been considered the main pathogenetic factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD). According to the so called Amyloid Cascade Hypothesis the increase of Aβ triggers a series of events leading to synaptic dysfunction and memory loss as well as to the structural brain damage in the later stage of the disease. However, several evidences suggest that this hypothesis is not sufficient to explain AD pathogenesis, especially considering that most of the clinical trials aimed to decrease Aβ levels have been unsuccessful. Moreover, Aβ is physiologically produced in the healthy brain during neuronal activity and it is needed for synaptic plasticity and memory. Here we propose a model interpreting AD pathogenesis as an alteration of the negative feedback loop between Aβ and its physiological receptors, focusing on α7-nAchRs. According to this vision, when Aβ cannot exert its physiological function a negative feedback mechanism would induce a compensatory increase of its production leading to an abnormal accumulation that reduces α7-nAchR function, leading to synaptic dysfunction and memory loss. In this perspective, the indiscriminate Aβ removal might worsen neuronal homeostasis, causing a further impoverishment of learning and memory. Even if further studies are needed to better understand and validate these mechanisms, we believe that to deepen the role of Aβ in physiological conditions might represent the keystone to elucidate important aspects of AD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuroscience 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.08.039 · 3.36 Impact Factor
    • "ic pathway are already observed in the pre - symptomatic stage of AD . The resulting increase in Ab production may explain the observations made by us and others that Ab ac - cumulates inside neurons in the pre - AD and Down syndrome brain and in several AD mouse models , before the onset of plaque pa - thology ( e . g . , Bossers et al . , 2010 ; Youmans et al . , 2012 , reviewed in LaFerla et al . , 2007 ) . Whether neuronal hyperactivity is causally linked to disturbances in clathrin - mediated endocytosis ( e . g . , by overloading the system ) , or that it amplifies the effects of alter - ations already present in the endocytic machinery , is unclear at this moment . In any case , the interaction "
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal activity directly promotes the production and secretion of amyloid β (Aβ). Interestingly, neuronal hyperactivity can be observed in presymptomatic stages of both sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in several AD mouse models. In this review, we will highlight the recent evidence for neuronal hyperactivity before or during the onset of cognitive defects in mild cognitive impairment. Furthermore, we review specific molecular mechanisms through which neuronal hyperactivity affects Aβ production and degradation. With these data, we will provide more insight into the 2-faced nature of neuronal hyperactivity: does enhanced neuronal activity during the presymptomatic stages of AD provide protection against the earliest disease processes or is it a pathogenic contributor to AD? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neurobiology of Aging 09/2014; 36(1). DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.08.014 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    • "This is likely due to the antibody used to stain plaque deposits. Here we used MOAB2, a pan-specific Aβ antibody that recognizes several conformational species of Aβ1–42[36], while the previous study [32] used thioflavin-S to stain beta-sheet-rich amyloid fibrils in plaques. MOAB2-stained Aβ plaques were clear and could easily be distinguished from one another using our methods (Figure 1A). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Having the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE-ϵ4) allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain is influenced by APOE genotype. Transgenic mice co-expressing five familial AD mutations (5xFAD) in the presence of human APOE alleles (ϵ2, ϵ3 or ϵ4) exhibit APOE genotype-specific differences in early Aβ accumulation, suggesting an interaction between APOE and AD pathology. Whether APOE genotype affects Aβ-plaque-associated neuroinflammation remains unclear. In the current study, we address the role of APOE genotype on Aβ-associated microglial reactivity in the EFAD transgenic mouse model. Methods We analyzed Aβ-induced glial activation in the brains of 6-month-old EFAD transgenic mice (E2FAD, E3FAD and E4FAD). Region-specific morphological profiles of Aβ plaques in EFAD brain sections were compared using immunofluorescence staining. We then determined the degree of glial activation in sites of Aβ deposition while comparing levels of the inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) by ELISA. Finally, we quantified parameters of Aβ-associated microglial reactivity using double-stained EFAD brain sections. Results Characterization of Aβ plaques revealed there were larger and more intensely stained plaques in E4FAD mice relative to E2FAD and E3FAD mice. E4FAD mice also had a greater percentage of compact plaques in the subiculum than E3FAD mice. Reactive microglia and dystrophic astrocytes were prominent in EFAD brains, and primarily localized to two sites of significant Aβ deposition: the subiculum and deep layers of the cortex. Cortical levels of IL-1β were nearly twofold greater in E4FAD mice relative to E3FAD mice. To control for differences in levels of Aβ in the different EFAD mice, we analyzed the microglia within domains of specific Aβ deposits. Morphometric analyses revealed increased measures of microglial reactivity in E4FAD mice, including greater dystrophy, increased fluorescence intensity and a higher density of reactive cells surrounding cortical plaques, than in E3FAD mice. Conclusions In addition to altering morphological profiles of Aβ deposition, APOE genotype influences Aβ-induced glial activation in the adult EFAD cortex. These data support a role for APOE in modulating Aβ-induced neuroinflammatory responses in AD progression, and support the use of EFAD mice as a suitable model for mechanistic studies of Aβ-associated neuroinflammation.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 06/2014; 11(1):111. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-11-111 · 5.41 Impact Factor
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