The Quantitative Electroencephalogram and the Low-Resolution Electrical Tomographic Analysis in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Ben Gurion University, Faculty of Health, Beer Sheva, Israel.
Clinical EEG and neuroscience: official journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) (Impact Factor: 2.22). 01/2012; 43(1):48-53. DOI: 10.1177/1550059411428716
Source: PubMed


The electroencephalogram (EEG) is the recording of the brain electrical activity as measured on the scalp. Using mathematical algorithms, the 3-dimensional (3D) distribution of the electrical potential inside the brain can be calculated. One of the methods to calculate it is the low-resolution electrical tomographic analysis (LORETA). In this research, we seek to find the brain structures that differentiate patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from controls. Ten right-handed consenting adult male patients were recruited from a PTSD clinic. All patients fulfilled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR]) criteria for chronic PTSD (duration >2 years.) and were on drug treatment regimens that had been stable for at least 2 months (involving only serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and benzodiazepines).The control group consisted of 10 healthy hospital staff members. All study participants underwent 19 channel EEG measurements according to current standards of practice. All artifact-free EEG strips were examined for spectral as well as LORETA analysis focusing on the theta (4-7 Hz) band which is suggested to reflect the activity of the limbic system. The theta band showed a statistically significant difference (P < .05) between the 2 groups in the right temporal lobe and in both the right and left frontal lobes. Our findings support existing research data obtained via other imaging technologies, which demonstrated structural alterations in the right temporal and frontal areas in PTSD. These results indicate that combining quantitative EEG (QEEG) and the LORETA method, among other methods, may improve the neuroanatomical resolution of EEG data analysis.

Download full-text


Available from: Hagit Cohen,
  • Source
    • "Non-invasive brain activity recording has been used to investigate anatomical and functional changes occurring in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Functional studies have described significant neurobiological alterations in patients with PTSD while both reliving psychological traumas (Shin et al., 1999, 2004; Lanius et al., 2002, 2003; Lindauer et al., 2004; Britton et al., 2005; Osuch et al., 2008) and during resting state (Todder et al., 2012; Lee et al., 2014). The brain areas more frequently implicated in PTSD studies (hippocampus, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, anterior and posterior cingulate, and temporal cortex; Francati et al., 2007) belong to the limbic system, known to be involved in processing both positive and negative emotions. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We assessed cortical activation differences in real-time upon exposure to traumatic memory between two distinct groups of psychologically traumatized clients also in comparison with healthy controls. We used electroencephalography (EEG) to compare neuronal activation throughout the bilateral stimulation phase of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) sessions. We compared activation between the first (T0) and the last (T1) session, the latter performed after processing the index trauma. The group including all clients showed significantly higher cortical activity in orbito-frontal cortex at T0 shifting at T1 toward posterior associative regions. However, the subgroup of clients with chronic exposure to the traumatic event showed a cortical firing at both stages which was closer to that of controls. For the first time EEG monitoring enabled to disclose neurobiological differences between groups of clients with different trauma histories during the reliving of the traumatic event. Cortical activations in clients chronically exposed to traumatic memories were moderate, suggesting an association between social and environmental contexts with the neurobiological response to trauma exposure and psychotherapy.
    Frontiers in Psychology 10/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01614 · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to explore the modifications of EEG power spectra and EEG connectivity of resting state (RS) condition in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventeen patients and seventeen healthy subjects matched for age and gender were enrolled. EEG was recorded during five minutes of RS. EEG analysis were conducted by means of the standardized Low Resolution Electric Tomography software (sLORETA). In power spectra analysis PTSD patients showed a widespread increase of theta activity (4.5–7.5 Hz) in parietal lobes (Brodmann Area, BA 7, 4, 5, 40) and in frontal lobes (BA 6). In the connectivity analysis PTSD patients also showed increase of alpha connectivity (8–12.5 Hz) between the cortical areas explored by Pz-P4 electrode. Our results could reflect the alteration of memory systems and emotional processing consistently altered in PTSD patients.
    Biological Psychology 10/2014; 102(1). DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.07.011 · 3.40 Impact Factor