Genetic Variants Modify Susceptibility to Leukemia in Infants: A Children's Oncology Group Report

Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. .
Pediatric Blood & Cancer (Impact Factor: 2.39). 01/2013; 60(1). DOI: 10.1002/pbc.24131
Source: PubMed


BACKGROUND: The mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene is commonly rearranged in infant leukemia (IL). Genetic determinants of susceptibility to IL are unknown. Recent genome-wide association studies for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have identified susceptibility loci at IKZF1, ARID5B, and CEBPE. PROCEDURE: We genotyped these loci in 171 infants with leukemia and 384 controls and evaluated associations overall, by subtype [ALL, acute myeloid leukemia (AML)], and by presence (+) or absence (-) of MLL rearrangements. RESULTS: Homozygosity for a variant IKZF1 allele (rs11978267) increased risk of infant AML [Odds ratio (OR) = 3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8-8.4]; the increased risk was similar for AML/MLL+ and MLL- cases. In contrast, risk of ALL/MLL- was increased in infants homozygous for the IKZF1 variant (OR = 5.1, 95% CI = 1.8-14.5) but the variant did not modify risk of ALL/MLL+. For ARID5B (rs10821936), homozygosity for the variant allele increased risk for the ALL/MLL- subgroup only (OR = 7.2, 95% CI = 2.5-20.6). There was little evidence of an association with the CEBP variant (rs2239633). CONCLUSION: IKZF1 is expressed in early hematopoiesis, including precursor myeloid cells. Our data provide the first evidence that IKZF1 modifies susceptibility to infant AML, irrespective of MLL rearrangements, and could provide important new etiologic insights into this rare and heterogeneous hematopoietic malignancy. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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    • "This is expected from the previous genome wide association studies (GWAS) that have been performed in childhood ALL (peak incidence 2–5 years-old) [18,19]. Our data do not show evidence that CEBPE rs2239633 confers increased genetic susceptibility to EAL, in agreement with previous data in IL [12]. In a recent GWAS, CEBPE SNPs were strongly related to ALL risk in European Americans, with variable effects in non-European populations [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Acute leukemia in early age (EAL) is characterized by acquired genetic alterations such as MLL rearrangements (MLL-r). The aim of this case-controlled study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IKZF1, ARID5B, and CEBPE could be related to the onset of EAL cases (<24 months-old at diagnosis). The SNPs (IKZF1 rs11978267, ARID5B rs10821936 and rs10994982, CEBPE rs2239633) were genotyped in 265 cases [169 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 96 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)] and 505 controls by Taqman allelic discrimination assay. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between SNPs of cases and controls, adjusted on skin color and/or age. The risk was determined by calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Children with the IKZF1 SNP had an increased risk of developing MLL-germline ALL in white children. The heterozygous/mutant genotype in ARID5B rs10994982 significantly increased the risk for MLL-germline leukemia in white and non-white children (OR 2.60, 95% CI: 1.09-6.18 and OR 3.55, 95% CI: 1.57-8.68, respectively). The heterozygous genotype in ARID5B rs10821936 increased the risk for MLL-r leukemia in both white and non-white (OR 2.06, 95% CI: 1.12-3.79 and OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.09-5.10, respectively). Furthermore, ARID5B rs10821936 conferred increased risk for MLL-MLLT3 positive cases (OR 7.10, 95% CI:1.54-32.68). Our data do not show evidence that CEBPE rs2239633 confers increased genetic susceptibility to EAL. IKZF1 and CEBPE variants seem to play a minor role in genetic susceptibility to EAL, while ARID5B rs10821936 increased the risk of MLL-MLLT3. This result shows that genetic susceptibility could be associated with the differences regarding MLL breakpoints and partner genes.
    BMC Cancer 02/2014; 14(1):127. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-127 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • "SNP genotyping at a limited number of loci has been conducted in samples from both of the study populations. In a recent study evaluating four SNPs in the infant leukemia study, genotyping was successful for 171/189 (90%) samples included [22]. Similarly, the majority of the cases in the HB study were also successfully genotyped using the Sequenom platform (343/386 with complete triad data, 88% success rate; Spector el al. unpublished data). "
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    ABSTRACT: Collection of high-quality DNA is essential for molecular epidemiology studies. Methods have been evaluated for optimal DNA collection in studies of adults; however, DNA collection in young children poses additional challenges. Here, we have evaluated predictors of DNA quantity in buccal cells collected for population-based studies of infant leukemia (N = 489 mothers and 392 children) and hepatoblastoma (HB; N = 446 mothers and 412 children) conducted through the Children's Oncology Group. DNA samples were collected by mail using mouthwash (for mothers and some children) and buccal brush (for children) collection kits and quantified using quantitative real-time PCR. Multivariable linear regression models were used to identify predictors of DNA yield. Median DNA yield was higher for mothers in both studies compared with their children (14 mug vs. <1 mug). Significant predictors of DNA yield in children included case--control status (beta = -0.69, 50% reduction, P = 0.01 for case vs. control children), brush collection type, and season of sample collection. Demographic factors were not strong predictors of DNA yield in mothers or children in this analysis. The association with seasonality suggests that conditions during transport may influence DNA yield. The low yields observed in most children in these studies highlight the importance of developing alternative methods for DNA collection in younger age groups.
    BMC Genetics 08/2013; 14(1):69. DOI:10.1186/1471-2156-14-69 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leukemia is one of the leading journals in hematology and oncology. It is published monthly and covers all aspects of the research and treatment of leukemia and allied diseases. Studies of normal hemopoiesis are covered because of their comparative relevance.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 08/2012; 27(3). DOI:10.1038/leu.2012.244 · 10.43 Impact Factor
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