Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in Austria.
ABSTRACT Mortality of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 1 diabetes is increased 2- to 20-fold compared to non-diabetic individuals. In young adults with type 1 diabetes, cardiovascular events are more often the cause of premature death than nephropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in Austria. In a cross sectional study data of children with type 1 diabetes <18 years of age treated at the Children's department of the University Hospitals of Vienna and Graz were collected. We recorded body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol according to age, sex, age at manifestation, diabetes duration, and insulin requirement. From 264 patients (49.4% male) complete data were available. Of all patients, 76.1% had one or more risk factors, 20.8% had two or more, 10.2% had three or more, and 4.9% had four or more risk factors. Insufficient glycemic control was the most frequent risk factor, present in 60.6% of our patients, followed by elevated triglycerides (22.7%) and increased body mass index (20.1%). Higher prevalence of risk factors was correlated with increasing age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, and insulin requirement. In conclusion, children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes have a much higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors compared to non-diabetic individuals. To prevent future cardiovascular events, achieving the best possible glycemic control, early detection of further risk factors, and adequate intervention are highly important.
- SourceAvailable from: Jonathan ShawPediatric Diabetes 11/2007; 8(5):299-306. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Finnish type 1 diabetic patients and to assess whether it is associated with diabetic nephropathy or poor glycemic control. In all, 2,415 type 1 diabetic patients (51% men, mean age 37 years, duration of diabetes 22 years) participating in the nationwide, multicenter Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) study were included. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program diagnostic criteria. Patients were classified as having normal albumin excretion rate (AER) (n = 1,261), microalbuminuria (n = 326), macroalbuminuria (n = 383), or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (n = 164). Glycemic control was classified as good (HbA1c <7.5%), intermediate (7.5-9.0%), or poor (>9.0%). Creatinine clearance was estimated with the Cockcroft-Gault formula. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38% in men and 40% in women. The prevalence was 28% in those with normal AER, 44% in microalbuminuric patients, 62% in macroalbuminuric patients, and 68% in patients with ESRD (P < 0.001). Patients with metabolic syndrome had a 3.75-fold odds ratio for diabetic nephropathy (95% CI 2.89-4.85), and all of the separate components of the syndrome were independently associated with diabetic nephropathy. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 31% in patients with good glycemic control, 36% in patients with intermediate glycemic control, and 51% in patients with poor glycemic control (P < 0.001). Similarly, metabolic syndrome increased with worsening creatinine clearance. The metabolic syndrome is a frequent finding in type 1 diabetes and increases with advanced diabetic nephropathy and worse glycemic control.Diabetes Care 08/2005; 28(8):2019-24. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess relationships between pediatric lipids and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the fourth to fifth decades, we conducted 22- to 31-year follow-up studies (1998-2003) in former schoolchildren first studied in 1973-1976. The follow-up included 53% of eligible former subjects. We compared pediatric and adult body mass (in kilograms per square meter) and lipids in 19 cases with at least 1 CVD event and in 789 CVD event-free subjects. Mean +/- SD age was 12.3 +/- 3.3 years at entry and 38.5 +/- 3.8 years at follow-up. Mean age at the first CVD event was 37.1 +/- 4.9 years. The major novel finding of our study was that childhood triglycerides (TG) were consistently and independently associated with young adult CVD. The distributions of both childhood and adult TG were shifted to higher levels in the cases than controls. Of the 19 cases, 7 (37%) had childhood TG greater than the pediatric 95th percentile (153 mg/dL); and 6 of these 7 had high TG (>/=150 mg/dL) at adult follow-up. Overall, 61% of cases had high TG as adults. After adjusting for age, sex, and race, by analysis of variance, cases had higher TG levels both in childhood and in young adulthood. A bootstrapping method and the Cox proportional hazard analysis were used to predict CVD in the cohort with explanatory variables sex; race; childhood body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, log high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and log TG; and adult cigarette smoking and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Childhood TG level was a significant, independent explanatory variable for young adult CVD hazard (hazard ratio, 5.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-20.0 for each 1-unit increase in natural logarithm scale) along with adult type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 19.4; 95% confidence interval, 4.24-114.2). Pediatric hypertriglyceridemia appears to be a significant, independent, potentially reversible correlate of young adult CVD.Metabolism: clinical and experimental 06/2009; 58(9):1277-84. · 3.10 Impact Factor