Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in Austria.
ABSTRACT Mortality of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 1 diabetes is increased 2- to 20-fold compared to non-diabetic individuals. In young adults with type 1 diabetes, cardiovascular events are more often the cause of premature death than nephropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in Austria. In a cross sectional study data of children with type 1 diabetes <18 years of age treated at the Children's department of the University Hospitals of Vienna and Graz were collected. We recorded body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol according to age, sex, age at manifestation, diabetes duration, and insulin requirement. From 264 patients (49.4% male) complete data were available. Of all patients, 76.1% had one or more risk factors, 20.8% had two or more, 10.2% had three or more, and 4.9% had four or more risk factors. Insufficient glycemic control was the most frequent risk factor, present in 60.6% of our patients, followed by elevated triglycerides (22.7%) and increased body mass index (20.1%). Higher prevalence of risk factors was correlated with increasing age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, and insulin requirement. In conclusion, children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes have a much higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors compared to non-diabetic individuals. To prevent future cardiovascular events, achieving the best possible glycemic control, early detection of further risk factors, and adequate intervention are highly important.
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ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factor clustering in children and adolescents attending a lipid clinic as well as the relationship of their hypertensive status with indicators of fat distribution and parental fat distribution and blood pressure (BP). In this cross-sectional primary prevention study, data on indicators of fat distribution (waist, hip, and middle-upper arm circumferences), body mass index (BMI), BP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), lipid and glucose profile of 370 children and adolescents (180 M, 190 F, mean age 9.5 years, (range 6-14 years)) were collected. Parents (502, 251 M, 251 F, age range 28-36 years), who gave their informed consent, underwent BMI, fat distribution, and BP measurements. There were 131 (35.4 %) hypercholesterolemic subjects and 72 (19.5 %) hypertensives. Using tests on medians, in comparison with 298 normotensives, the 72 hypertensives had higher levels of insulin (p < 0.005) and no differences in cholesterol levels, age, and height. BMI and all the indicators of fat distribution were significantly higher (all p < 0.01) in hypertensives than normotensives. BMI and waist circumferences were higher (both p < 0.05) in the mothers of hypertensives, but not in the fathers. Hypertensive subjects' BMI was related to mothers' hip and waist circumferences (r = 0.28 and 0.21, respectively). In this study, children's hypertension was a component of the metabolic syndrome, but uric acid and hsCRP levels were not contributive. This hemodynamic and metabolic disorder was related to maternal fat distribution and BMI suggesting an epigenetic etiology.European Journal of Pediatrics 07/2013; · 1.91 Impact Factor