Corrigendum to: “Are common factors involved in the pathogenesis of primary liver cancers? A meta-analysis of risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma” [J Hepatol 2012;57:69–76]
ABSTRACT Well established risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma such as biliary tract inflammation and liver flukes are not present in most Western countries patients. Although cirrhosis and other causes of chronic liver disease have been implicated, their contribution as risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma is unclear and our aims were to analyze these emerging potential risk factors by systematic examination of case-control series from geographically diverse regions.
We performed a literature review and meta-analysis of case-control studies on intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and cirrhosis and related risk factors. Tests of heterogeneity, publication bias and sensitivity analyses were performed and an overall odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals calculated.
Eleven studies from both high and low prevalence regions were identified. All studies except those evaluating cirrhosis, diabetes, and obesity exhibited significant heterogeneity. Cirrhosis was associated with a combined OR of 22.92 (95% CI=18.24-28.79). Meta-analysis estimated the overall odds ratio (with 95% confidence intervals) for defined risk factors such as hepatitis B: 5.10 (2.91-8.95), hepatitis C: 4.84 (2.41-9.71), obesity: 1.56 (1.26-1.94), diabetes mellitus type II: 1.89 (1.74-2.07), smoking: 1.31 (0.95-1.82), and alcohol use: 2.81 (1.52-5.21). Sensitivity analysis did not alter the odds ratio for any risk factors except smoking and there was no evidence of publication bias.
Cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis B and C, alcohol use, diabetes, and obesity are major risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. These data suggest a common pathogenesis of primary intrahepatic epithelial cancers.
- SourceAvailable from: Timothy M PawlikJournal of Hepatology 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2014.01.021 · 10.40 Impact Factor
- Journal of Hepatology 04/2014; 61(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2014.04.014 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), or tumor of the biliary tree, is a rare and heterogeneous group of malignancies associated with a very poor prognosis. Depending on their localization along the biliary tree, CCAs are classified as intrahepatic, perihilar, and distal, and these subtypes are now considered different entities that differ in tumor biology, the staging system, management, and prognosis. When diagnosed, an evaluation by a multidisciplinary team is essential; the team must decide on the best therapeutic option. Surgical resection of tumors with negative margins is the best option for all subtypes of CCA, although this is only achieved in less than 50% of cases. Five-year survival rates have increased in the recent past owing to improvements in imaging techniques, which permits resectability to be predicted more accurately, and in surgery. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are relatively ineffective in treating nonoperable tumors and the resistance of CCA to these therapies is a major problem. Although the combination of gemcitabine plus platinum derivatives is the pharmacological treatment most widely used, to date there is no standard chemotherapy, and new combinations with targeted drugs are currently being tested in ongoing clinical trials. This review summarizes the biology, clinical management, and pharmacological perspectives of these complex tumors.01/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/828074