Conference Paper

# Mathematical Modeling and Spark Mapping of Shade Structures for Corral Systems in Hot Climates

Conference: Proceedings of CIGR International Conference of Agricultural Engineering, Iguassu Falls City, Brazil.

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DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2505.3606 · Available from: Mohamed Samer,
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• "This system allows air to move in the space between the roof and the floor performing natural ventilation which enhances dairy cows' microclimate (Hatem et al., 2004a; Hatem et al., 2004b; Hatem et al., 2006). However, the cowshed height should be between 5 and 8 m, preferably 8 m if the cowshed width is greater than 24 m (Hatem et al., 2004a; Samer et al., 2008d). "

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##### Article: A Tool to Design the Concrete Constructions of Horizontal Silos
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ABSTRACT: A tool is developed in order to plan and design concrete structures for horizontal silos. A mathematical model was developed. Subsequently, the tool is developed by integrating the mathematical model into an electronic spark map. The spark map (decision tree) specifies the horizontal silo dimensions according to the planned storage volume, computes the required amounts of construction materials to build the horizontal silo, and calculates the capital investment and the fixed, variable, and total costs. On the other hand, the mathematical model of the spark map requires some input data. According to these data, the spark map will make calculations and show the output data automatically. Data of 4 horizontal silos were used to carry out the model validation. The differences between actual and calculated values were determined, and the standard deviations were calculated. The coefficients of variation were 3.4%, 5.5%, 5%, 7%, and 4.5% for amounts of concrete, gravels, cement, sand, and iron rods, respectively.
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##### Article: Towards the implementation of the Green Building concept in agricultural buildings: A literature review
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ABSTRACT: The “Green Building” is an interdisciplinary theme, where the green building concept includes a multitude of elements, components and procedures which diverge to several subtopics that intertwined to form the green building concept. Generally, the green building is considered to be an environmental component, as the green building materials are manufactured from local eco-sources, i.e. environmentally friendly materials, which are then used to make an eco-construction subject to an eco-design that provides a healthy habitat built on the cultural and architectural heritage in construction while ensuring conservation of natural resources. This ensures disassembling the building components and materials, after a determined building lifetime, to environmentally friendly materials that can be either re-used or recycled. During their lifecycle, the green buildings minimize the use of resources (energy and water); reduce the harmful impact on the ecology, and provide better indoor environment. Green buildings afford a high level of environmental, economic, and engineering performance. These include energy efficiency and conservation, improved indoor air quality, resource and material efficiency, and occupant's health and productivity. This study focuses on defining green buildings and elaborating their interaction with the environment, energy, and indoor air quality and ventilation. Furthermore, the present study investigates the green building materials (e.g. biocement, eco-cement and green concrete), green designs, green roofs, and green technologies. Additionally, the present study highlights the green buildings rating systems, the economics of green buildings, and the challenges that face the implementation. Eventually, the interdependency between the green buildings and agriculture has been discussed.
Agricultural Engineering International : The CIGR e-journal 07/2013; 15(2):25-46.