Highly activated and expanded natural killer cells for multiple myeloma immunotherapy.
ABSTRACT Background Patients with gene expression profiling-defined high-risk myeloma in relapse have poor outcomes with current therapies. We tested whether natural killer cells expanded by co-culture with K562 cells transfected with 41BBL and membrane-bound interleukin-15 could kill myeloma cells with a high-risk gene expression profile in vitro and in a unique model which recapitulates human myeloma. DESIGN AND METHODS: OPM2 and high-risk primary myeloma tumors were grown in human fetal bone implanted into non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficiency mice with a deficient interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain. These mice are devoid of endogenous natural killer and T-cell activity and were used to determine whether adoptively transferred expanded natural killer cells could inhibit myeloma growth and myeloma-associated bone destruction. RESULTS: Natural killer cells from healthy donors and myeloma patients expanded a median of 804- and 351-fold, respectively, without significant T-cell expansion. Expanded natural killer cells killed both allogeneic and autologous primary myeloma cells avidly via a perforin-mediated mechanism in which the activating receptor NKG2D, natural cytotoxicity receptors, and DNAX-accessory molecule-1 played a central role. Adoptive transfer of expanded natural killer cells inhibited the growth of established OPM2 and high-risk primary myeloma tumors grown in the murine model. The transferred, expanded natural killer cells proliferated in vivo in an interleukin-2 dose-dependent fashion, persisted up to 4 weeks, were readily detectable in the human bone, inhibited myeloma growth and protected bone from myeloma-induced osteolysis. Conclusions These studies provide the rationale for testing expanded natural killer cells in humans.
Article: Prevention and treatment of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis after intracraniofacial surgery with distraction osteogenesis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) meningitis has increased worldwide, particularly in East Asia and the United States. We recently experienced a case of PRSP meningitis that developed during frontofacial distraction. The patient was a 7-year-old girl with Crouzon disease who was treated by frontofacial monobloc/Le Fort IV minus glabellar osteotomy with quadruple internal distraction devices. Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis was diagnosed after surgery and treated successfully with meropenem (a carbapenem) at 120 mg kg d every 8 hours, ceftriaxone (a third-generation cephalosporin) at 100 mg kg d every 12 hours, and vancomycin (a glycopeptide) at 45 mg kg d every 6 hours. This case indicates that severe and fatal bacterial meningitis may occur as a postoperative complication due to multidrug-resistant bacteria indigenous to the nasal cavity after simultaneous osteotomy of the cranium and facial bone in intracraniofacial surgery, such as that for syndromic craniosynostosis and hypertelorbitism. In such cases, preventive strategies should include preoperative administration of pneumococcal vaccine, preoperative screening of nasal bacterial flora by nasal culture test, and prior administration of a carbapenem with good cerebrospinal fluid transfer or a third- or fourth-generation cephem covering PRSP. Postoperatively, suspected meningitis may be treated with a combination of the 3 drugs used in our case, in parallel with emergency cephalic contrast computed tomography and culture tests of blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Our experience suggests that these measures will facilitate a successful outcome in frontofacial distraction osteogenesis.The Journal of craniofacial surgery 12/2008; 19(6):1542-8. · 0.81 Impact Factor