Article

Highly activated and expanded natural killer cells for multiple myeloma immunotherapy

Myeloma Institute for Research and Therapy University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences 4301 West Markham, Little Rock, AR 72205 USA. .
Haematologica (Impact Factor: 5.87). 03/2012; 97(9):1348-56. DOI: 10.3324/haematol.2011.056747
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Background Patients with gene expression profiling-defined high-risk myeloma in relapse have poor outcomes with current therapies. We tested whether natural killer cells expanded by co-culture with K562 cells transfected with 41BBL and membrane-bound interleukin-15 could kill myeloma cells with a high-risk gene expression profile in vitro and in a unique model which recapitulates human myeloma. DESIGN AND METHODS: OPM2 and high-risk primary myeloma tumors were grown in human fetal bone implanted into non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficiency mice with a deficient interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain. These mice are devoid of endogenous natural killer and T-cell activity and were used to determine whether adoptively transferred expanded natural killer cells could inhibit myeloma growth and myeloma-associated bone destruction. RESULTS: Natural killer cells from healthy donors and myeloma patients expanded a median of 804- and 351-fold, respectively, without significant T-cell expansion. Expanded natural killer cells killed both allogeneic and autologous primary myeloma cells avidly via a perforin-mediated mechanism in which the activating receptor NKG2D, natural cytotoxicity receptors, and DNAX-accessory molecule-1 played a central role. Adoptive transfer of expanded natural killer cells inhibited the growth of established OPM2 and high-risk primary myeloma tumors grown in the murine model. The transferred, expanded natural killer cells proliferated in vivo in an interleukin-2 dose-dependent fashion, persisted up to 4 weeks, were readily detectable in the human bone, inhibited myeloma growth and protected bone from myeloma-induced osteolysis. Conclusions These studies provide the rationale for testing expanded natural killer cells in humans.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Guido Tricot, Jul 05, 2015
2 Followers
 · 
188 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: NK-cells undergo a ''licensing'' process as they develop into fully-functional cells capable of efficiently killing targets. NK-cell differentiation is accompanied by an increased surface expression of inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) molecules, which is positively associated with cytotoxicity against the HLA-deficient K562 cell line. NK-cells are rapidly redeployed between the blood and tissues in response to acute exercise, but it is not known if exercise evokes a preferential trafficking of differentiated NK-cells or impacts NK-cell cytotoxic activity (NKCA) against HLA-expressing target cells. Sixteen healthy cyclists performed three 30-minute bouts of cycling exercise at -5%, +5%, and +15% of lactate threshold. Blood samples obtained before, immediately after, and 1h after exercise were used to enumerate NK-cells and their subsets, and determine NKCA and degranulating subsets (CD107+) against cell lines of multiple myeloma (U266 and RPMI-8226), lymphoma (721.221 and 221 AEH), and leukemia (K562) origin by 4 and 11-color flow cytometry, respectively. Exercise evoked a stepwise redeployment of NK-cell subsets in accordance with differentiation status [highly-differentiated (KIR+/NKG2A-) > medium-differentiated (KIR+/NKG2A+) > low-differentiated (KIR-/NKG2A+)] that was consistent across all exercise intensities. NKCA per cell increased ∼1.6 fold against U266 and 221 AEH targets 1h post-exercise and was associated with a decreased proportion of NK-cells expressing the inhibitory receptor CD158b and increased proportion of NK-cells expressing the activating receptor NKG2C, respectively. We conclude that exercise evokes a preferential redeployment of NK-cell subsets with a high differentiation phenotype and augments cytotoxicity against HLA-expressing target cells. Exercise may serve as a simple strategy to enrich the blood compartment of highly cytotoxic NK-cell subsets that can be harvested for clinical use.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2013.10.030 · 6.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Allogeneic transplantation has the potential to cure subgroups of patients with multiple myeloma, but its role is controversial due to high transplant-related mortality. Therefore, myeloablative allogeneic transplantation has fallen out of favor. Allogeneic transplantation using reduced-intensity conditioning (RICallo) has lower transplant-related mortality and may be an option for subgroups of patients. Upfront tandem autologous/RICallo (auto/RICallo) was shown to be superior to single auto or tandem auto/auto in both progression-free and overall survival in two studies with long-term follow-up, while four similarly designed studies with shorter follow-up did not show a significant advantage. All studies included patients less than 70 years of age. No study has shown that the auto/RICallo approach is inferior to auto or auto/auto. There have been indications that poor-risk cytogenetics may be overcome by the auto/RICallo approach. Encouraging results have also been seen in treatment of relapsed patients. Small studies indicate that combining allogeneic transplant with new proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs may further improve results. Prospective studies including these drugs for induction, conditioning and post-allogeneic transplant maintenance are warranted and planned. New cell therapies, such as with natural killer cells have shown encouraging results in experimental animals and should be tried in combination with allotransplantation.
    Haematologica 10/2008; 93(9):1295-300. DOI:10.3324/haematol.13555 · 5.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cell adoptive transfer is a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy; however, its development has been hindered by the lack of efficient methods to produce large numbers of functional NK cells. In this study, we engineered the leukaemia cell line K562 to express CD137 ligand (CD137L) and membrane-bound interleukin (mbIL)-21 on the cell surface, and used these cells to expand NK cells from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We found that purity of the NK cells (CD3- CD56+ /CD16+ ) increased from less than 30% to above 95% after a 3-week expansion and proliferation of the cells was sustained for more than 8 weeks. The surface expression of NK cell activating and inhibitory receptors, except for NKp80, was clearly increased with the expansion, and NK cell-mediated killing activity was also enhanced significantly. However, these changes in both phenotype and function were clearly reversed by JSI-124, a specific signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) inhibitor. Taken together, data showed that the combination of mbIL-21 and CD137L could efficiently induce the formation of functional human NK cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and STAT-3 inhibition could impair this induction. Therefore, STAT-3 activation may benefit human NK cell proliferation and cytotoxicity, and provide valuable clinical applications in NK cell immunotherapy against viral infectious diseases and cancers.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 04/2013; 172(1):104-112. DOI:10.1111/cei.12034 · 3.28 Impact Factor