Specific immunotherapy in children: the evidence.
ABSTRACT Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only treatment able to not only act on the symptoms of allergy but also act on the causes. At present, SIT may be administered in two forms: subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). SCIT represents the standard modality of treatment while SLIT has recently been introduced into clinical practice and today represents an accepted alternative to SCIT. The main advantages of SIT that are lacking with drug treatment are long-lasting clinical effects and alteration of the natural course of the disease. This prevents the new onset of asthma in patients with allergic rhinitis and the onset of new sensitizations. The mechanism of action of both routes is similar; they modify peripheral and mucosal Th2-responses into a prevalent Th1-polarization with subsequent reduction of the allergic inflammatory reaction. Both have long-term effects for years after they have been discontinued, although for SLIT these evidences are insufficient. To date several guidelines have defined indications, controindications, side-effects, and clinical aspect for SCIT and SLIT. New forms of immunotherapy, allergen products and approaches to food allergy and atopic eczema represents the future of SIT.
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ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of three-year subcutaneous SQ-standardized specific immunotherapy (SCIT) in house dust mite (HDM)-allergic children with asthma. Ninety children with allergic asthma to HDMs, with or without allergic rhinitis, were randomly divided into two groups, the treatment group and the control group. The treatment group received SCIT combined with standardized glucocorticoid management and the control group received standardized glucocorticoid management alone for a period of three years. The mean daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), a four-week diary recording the symptom scores of asthma, peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements, skin prick test results and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were assessed prior to treatment and following one, two and three years of treatment. The median dose of ICS was reduced in the treatment group after two and three years of treatment compared with that of the control group. After three years of treatment, the discontinuation percentage of ICS in the treatment group was higher than that in the control group. The treatment group demonstrated significantly reduced daytime and night-time asthmatic symptom scores, increased PEF values and reduced serum IgE levels after two and three years of treatment compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, three-year SCIT treatment combined with ICS is an effective immunotherapy for children with allergic asthma and resulted in a reduction of the required ICS dose.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 03/2014; 7(3):630-634. DOI:10.3892/etm.2014.1469 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is approved in the United States for the treatment of pediatric asthma and rhinitis; sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) does not have regulatory approval but is used in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of SCIT and SLIT for the treatment of pediatric asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.METHODS:Two independent reviewers selected articles for inclusion, extracted data, and graded the strength of evidence for each clinical outcome. All studies were randomized controlled trials of children with allergic asthma or rhinoconjunctivitis treated with SCIT or an aqueous formulation of SLIT. Data sources were Medline, Embase, LILACS, CENTRAL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through May 2012.RESULTS:In 13 trials, 920 children received SCIT or usual care; in 18 studies, 1583 children received SLIT or usual care. Three studies compared SCIT with SLIT head-to-head in 135 children. The strength of evidence is moderate that SCIT improves asthma and rhinitis symptoms and low that SCIT improves conjunctivitis symptoms and asthma medication scores. Strength of evidence is high that SLIT improves asthma symptoms and moderate that SLIT improves rhinitis and conjunctivitis symptoms and decreases medication usage. The evidence is low to support SCIT over SLIT for improving asthma or rhinitis symptoms or medication usage. Local reactions were frequent with SCIT and SLIT. There was 1 report of anaphylaxis with SCIT.CONCLUSIONS:Evidence supports the efficacy of both SCIT and SLIT for the treatment of asthma and rhinitis in children.PEDIATRICS 05/2013; DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-0343 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim was to study the peculiarities of differential diagnosis, prevention and treatment of different forms of rhinitis in Kazakhstan children and adolescents. 124 children and adolescents aged 1-17 years were randomly enrolled in our hospital based study in 2010 and 2011. Skin prick tests and total serum IgE level were assessed in all allergic patients. Subcutaneous specific immunotherapy was performed in 57 (70.3%) allergic patients. For the treatment of the developed rhinitis, we used intranasal glucocorticosteroids in all 47 (37.9%) patients with rhinitis medicamentosa. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed in 81 (65.3%), infectious rhinitis in 43 (34.7%) and rhinitis medicamentosa in 47 (37.9%) cases. High mono sensitization was mainly to Artemisia Absinthium 55 (67.9%) and Sunflower 20 (24.7%) species, whereas multiple sensitization was caused by the mix of weeds in 55 (67.9%) and the mix of meadow grass in 31 (38.3%). The mean IgE level was 323.2±264.9SD. Only 5 (17.2%) patients with specific immunotherapy developed rhinitis medicamentosa. 35 (74.5%) patients treated by nasal glucocorticosteroids stopped taking the decongestants. The incidence of rhinitis medicamentosa depends on duration of decongestants use. Specific immunotherapy is recommended for the prevention of rhinitis medicamentosa in patients suffering from allergic rhinitis, whereas intranasal glucocorticosteroids are the most appropriate for the treatment regardless initial cause of rhinitis development.Iranian Journal of Public Health 04/2013; 42(4):374-9. · 0.58 Impact Factor