Perioperative anaphylaxis: epidemiology.
ABSTRACT The clinical diagnosis of an anesthesia-related immediate hypersensitivity reaction is a difficult task for clinicians. Anaphylaxis may present as cardiovascular collapse or airway obstruction, associated or not with cutaneous manifestations. Drug hypersensitivity reactions that occur during anesthesia are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality and socio-economic costs. Perioperative anaphylaxis is becoming more common, probably because of the more frequent use of anesthesia and the increasing complexity of the drugs used. However, despite increased awareness of anaphylactic reactions to drugs and compounds used in anesthesia, their incidence remains poorly defined. Moreover, current epidemiological data should be carefully evaluated since the various studies published concerned non-homogeneous populations and gave differing definitions of drug hypersensitivity.
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ABSTRACT: Immediate hypersensitivity reactions are an important cause for mortality and morbidity in anesthesia. The present review considers reports covering epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of these reactions. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions are largely under-reported, adult women being at significantly higher risk than men. The role of sex hormones associated with increased risk in adult women has been demonstrated. Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) remain the most frequently incriminated drugs. Reactions involving antibiotics, dyes, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are reported with increasing frequency, in parallel with changing trends in clinical practice. A recent hypothesis concerning a link between pholcodine exposure and allergic reactions to NMBAs is under investigation. Detailed guidelines concerning skin testing have been provided. The use of several inotropes or vasopressor such as vasopressin is proposed in case of reactions refractory to epinephrine and volume expansion. The use of cyclodextrin to mitigate severe allergic reactions to rocuronium, by specific drug encapsulation, has been proposed. Hypersensitivity reactions remain a major cause of concern in the perioperative setting. Although largely under-reported, their incidence is higher than previously reported. NMBAs remain the most frequently incriminated drug, followed by latex and antibiotics. The number of reactions involving new allergens like vital dyes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is rapidly increasing. The mechanism of sensitization to NMBAs could be influenced by as yet unidentified environmental factors. The possible role of pholcodine is under investigation. Several guidelines concerning the diagnosis and management of immediate hypersensitivity reactions in anesthesia are now available.Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 08/2012; 12(4):361-8. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It's well established that asthma, allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are three closely related disease. In pediatrics, these conditions represent a common issue in daily practice. The scientific community has recently started to simply evaluate them as different manifestations of a common pathogenic phenomenon. This consideration relates to important implications in the clinical management of these diseases, which may affect the daily activity of a pediatrician. The unity of the respiratory tract is confirmed both from a morphological and from a functional point of view. When treating rhinitis, it is often necessary to assess the presence of asthma. Patients with sinusitis should be evaluated for a possible concomitant asthma. Conversely, patients with asthma should always be evaluated for possible nasal disease, especially those suffering from difficult-to-treat asthma, in which an occult sinusitis may be detected. The medications that treat nasal diseases appear to be useful in improving asthma control and in reducing bronchial hyperresponsiveness. It seems therefore important to analyze the link between asthma and sinusitis, both in terms of clinical and pathogenic features, as well the therapeutic approach of those patients presenting with these diseases.Italian Journal of Pediatrics 10/2012; 38(1):60. · 1.34 Impact Factor