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[Technical report] SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: Expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment

PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.3). 11/2011; 128(5):1030-9. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2011-2284
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Despite a major decrease in the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) since the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released its recommendation in 1992 that infants be placed for sleep in a nonprone position, this decline has plateaued in recent years. Concurrently, other causes of sudden unexpected infant death that occur during sleep (sleep-related deaths), including suffocation, asphyxia, and entrapment, and ill-defined or unspecified causes of death have increased in incidence, particularly since the AAP published its last statement on SIDS in 2005. It has become increasingly important to address these other causes of sleep-related infant death. Many of the modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for SIDS and suffocation are strikingly similar. The AAP, therefore, is expanding its recommendations from focusing only on SIDS to focusing on a safe sleep environment that can reduce the risk of all sleep-related infant deaths, including SIDS. The recommendations described in this policy statement include supine positioning, use of a firm sleep surface, breastfeeding, room-sharing without bed-sharing, routine immunizations, consideration of using a pacifier, and avoidance of soft bedding, overheating, and exposure to tobacco smoke, alcohol, and illicit drugs. The rationale for these recommendations is discussed in detail in the accompanying "Technical Report--SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Expansion of Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment," which is included in this issue of Pediatrics (www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/128/5/e1341).

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    • "Because SIDS is a diagnosis of exclusion, if the presence of factors indicating the possibility that a death may have been due to injury are present (e.g., unsafe sleep positioning, bedsharing , excess bedding), it is not certified as SIDS [4]. Infant injury deaths have been identified as important for public health intervention because they may be preventable by reducing the modifiable risk factors related to sleep position and sleep environment [7] [8]. Sleep-related infant care practices that have been identified as possible risk factors for sleep-related infant deaths include the placement of infants in prone or side sleep position, the sharing of a sleep surface with an adult (i.e., bed-sharing), and the use of excess bedding [8–13]. "
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    09/2013; 2013:141967. DOI:10.1155/2013/141967
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    • "Besides, the concern of a possible association between milk thickening and the development of necrotizing enterocolitis has been raised [54] [55]. Eventually, it should be noticed that a worsening in acid GER's features has been reported after HM fortification [56], while evidencess regarding the effect of nonnutritive sucking [57] and intragastric tubes [42] [49] are still limited and controversial. "
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