SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment.
ABSTRACT Despite a major decrease in the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) since the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released its recommendation in 1992 that infants be placed for sleep in a nonprone position, this decline has plateaued in recent years. Concurrently, other causes of sudden unexpected infant death that occur during sleep (sleep-related deaths), including suffocation, asphyxia, and entrapment, and ill-defined or unspecified causes of death have increased in incidence, particularly since the AAP published its last statement on SIDS in 2005. It has become increasingly important to address these other causes of sleep-related infant death. Many of the modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for SIDS and suffocation are strikingly similar. The AAP, therefore, is expanding its recommendations from focusing only on SIDS to focusing on a safe sleep environment that can reduce the risk of all sleep-related infant deaths, including SIDS. The recommendations described in this policy statement include supine positioning, use of a firm sleep surface, breastfeeding, room-sharing without bed-sharing, routine immunizations, consideration of using a pacifier, and avoidance of soft bedding, overheating, and exposure to tobacco smoke, alcohol, and illicit drugs. The rationale for these recommendations is discussed in detail in the accompanying "Technical Report--SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Expansion of Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment," which is included in this issue of Pediatrics (www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/128/5/e1341).
SourceAvailable from: Rebecca Muckelbauer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) continues to be one of the main causes of infant mortality in the United States. The objective of this study was to analyse the association between diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) immunisation and SIDS over time.Methods The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided the number of cases of SIDS and live births per year (1968¿2009), allowing the calculation of SIDS mortality rates. Immunisation coverage was based on (1) the United States Immunization Survey (1968¿1985), (2) the National Health Interview Survey (1991¿1993), and (3) the National Immunization Survey (1994¿2009). We used sleep position data from the National Infant Sleep Position Survey. To determine the time points at which significant changes occurred and to estimate the annual percentage change in mortality rates, we performed joinpoint regression analyses. We fitted a Poisson regression model to determine the association between SIDS mortality rates and DTP immunisation coverage (1975¿2009).ResultsSIDS mortality rates increased significantly from 1968 to 1971 (+27% annually), from 1971 to 1974 (+47%), and from 1974 to 1979 (+3%). They decreased from 1979 to 1991 (¿1%) and from 1991 to 2001 (¿8%). After 2001, mortality rates remained constant. DTP immunisation coverage was inversely associated with SIDS mortality rates. We observed an incidence rate ratio of 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.87 to 0.97) per 10% increase in DTP immunisation coverage after adjusting for infant sleep position.Conclusions Increased DTP immunisation coverage is associated with decreased SIDS mortality. Current recommendations on timely DTP immunisation should be emphasised to prevent not only specific infectious diseases but also potentially SIDS.BMC Pediatrics 01/2015; 15(1):1. DOI:10.1186/s12887-015-0318-7 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) may be the most preventable cause of death for infants 0 to 6 months of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) first published safe sleep recommendations for parents and healthcare professionals in 1992. In 1994, new guidelines were published and they became known as the "Back to Sleep" campaign. After this, a noticeable decline occurred in infant deaths from SIDS. However, this number seems to have plateaued with no continuing significant improvements in infant deaths. The objective of this review was to determine whether nurses provide a safe sleep environment for infants in the hospital setting. Research studies that dealt with nursing behaviors and nursing knowledge in the hospital setting were included in the review. A search was conducted of Google Scholar, CINAHL, PubMed, and Cochrane, using the key words "NICU," "newborn," "SIDS," "safe sleep environment," "nurse," "education," "supine sleep," "prone sleep," "safe sleep," "special care nursery," "hospital policy for safe sleep," "research," "premature," "knowledge," "practice," "health care professionals," and "parents." The review included research reports on nursing knowledge and behaviors as well as parental knowledge obtained through education and role modeling of nursing staff. Only research studies were included to ensure that our analysis was based on rigorous research-based findings. Several international studies were included because they mirrored findings noted in the United States. All studies were published between 1999 and 2012. Healthcare professionals and parents were included in the studies. They were primarily self-report surveys, designed to determine what nurses, other healthcare professionals, and parents knew or had been taught about SIDS. Integrative review. Thirteen of the 16 studies included in the review found that some nurses and some mothers continued to use nonsupine positioning. Four of the 16 studies discussed nursing knowledge and noncompliance with AAP safe sleep recommendations. Eleven of the 16 studies found that some nurses were recommending incorrect sleep positions to mothers. Five of the 16 studies noted that some nurses and mothers gave fear of aspiration as the reason they chose to use a nonsupine sleep position. In the majority of the studies, the information was self-reported, which could impact the validity of the findings. Also, the studies used convenience sampling, which makes study findings difficult to generalize. The research indicates that there has been a plateau in safe sleeping practices in the hospital setting. Some infants continue to be placed in positions that increase the risk for SIDS. The research also shows that some nurses are not following the 2011 AAP recommendations for a safe sleep environment. Clearly, nurses need additional education on SIDS prevention and the safe sleep environment, and additional measures need to be adopted to ensure that all nurses and all families understand the research supporting the AAP recommendation that supine sleep is best. Further work is needed to promote evidence-based practice among healthcare professionals and families.Advances in Neonatal Care 02/2015; 15(1):8-22. DOI:10.1097/ANC.0000000000000145
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ABSTRACT: Sleep and ongoing cycling of sleep states are required for neurosensory processing, learning, and brain plasticity. Many aspects of neonatal intensive care environments such as handling for routine and invasive procedures, bright lighting, and noise can create stress, disrupt behavior, and interfere with sleep in prematurely born infants. The study empirically investigated whether a 30-minute observation of infant sleep states and behavior could differentiate an intervention to promote sleep in premature infants with feeding difficulties relative to conventional care (standard positioning, standard crib mattress [SP]). We included an intervention to determine the ability of the method to discriminate treatments and generate a benchmark for future improvements. The intervention, a conformational positioner (CP), is contoured around the infant to provide customized containment and boundaries. To more fully verify the 30-minute observational sleep results, standard polysomnography was conducted simultaneously and sleep outcomes for the 2 modalities were compared. In a randomized crossover clinical trial, 25 infants, 31.5 ± 0.6 weeks' gestational age and 38.4 ± 0.6 weeks at the study, with gastrointestinal conditions or general feeding difficulties used each intervention during an overnight neonatal intensive care unit sleep study. Infant sleep states and behaviors were observed during two 30-minute periods-that is, on the positioner and mattress-using the naturalistic observation of newborn behavior. Two certified developmental care nurses assessed sleep state, self-regulatory, and stress behaviors during 2-minute intervals and summed over 30 minutes. Sleep characteristics from standard polysomnography were measured at the time of behavior observations. Infants on CP spent significantly less time in alert, active awake, or crying states by observation compared with SP. Surgical subjects spent more time awake, active awake, or crying and displayed a higher number of behavior state changes than the nonsurgical infants. The percentage of time in observed deep sleep and quiet sleep was correlated with both percentage sleep efficiency (r = 0.78) and fewer state shifts per hour (r = -0.65) from electroencephalogram (EEG). Sleep efficiency by EEG was greater on CP versus SP. The CP enabled sleep compared with the standard mattress (SP) over 30-minute observation periods. Sleep status from behavioral observation was verified by standard EEG-based sleep techniques. Behavioral observation of sleep states may be a useful strategy for measuring the effectiveness of strategies to facilitate sleep in premature infants. Surgical subjects may benefit from additional interventions to promote sleep.Advances in Neonatal Care 02/2015; 15(1):70-6. DOI:10.1097/ANC.0000000000000134