Article

Basic Clinical and Laboratory Features of Filoviral Hemorrhagic Fever

Department of Preventive Medicine, Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20814-5119, USA.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.78). 11/2011; 204 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):S810-6. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jir299
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The filoviruses Marburg and Ebola cause severe hemorrhagic fever (HF) in humans. Beginning with the 1967 Marburg outbreak, 30 epidemics, isolated cases, and accidental laboratory infections have been described in the medical literature. We reviewed those reports to determine the basic clinical and laboratory features of filoviral HF. The most detailed information was found in descriptions of patients treated in industrialized countries; except for the 2000 outbreak of Ebola Sudan HF in Uganda, reports of epidemics in central Africa provided little controlled or objective clinical data. Other than the case fatality rate, there were no clear differences in the features of the various filovirus infections. This compilation will be of value to medical workers responding to epidemics and to investigators attempting to develop animal models of filoviral HF. By identifying key unanswered questions and gaps in clinical data, it will help guide clinical research in future outbreaks.

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    • "n humans . The typical clinical symptoms known from hantavirus - infected patients in the Old and New World include high fever , hemorrhages , thrombocytopenia , abdominal pain , flu - like symptoms , and finally organ failure – symptoms known to be also caused by many other hemorrhagic fever viruses including arena - , filo - , and flaviviruses ( Kortepeter et al . , 2011 ; Heinz and Stiasny , 2012 ; McLay et al . , 2014 ) . Recent outbreaks of zoonotic diseases , like MERS coronavirus on the Arabian Peninsula ( de Groot et al . , 2013 ) or Ebola virus in West Africa ( Baize et al . , 2014 ) , demonstrate a high necessity for intensive studies of highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses in order to be prepared"
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    • "Bleeding often occurs from various mucous membranes together with easy bruising and persistent bleeding after venapuncture. Massive bleeding may occur in the gastro-intestinal tract and/or intra-cerebrally [Kortepeter et al., 2011]. These bleeding complications are most frequent in severe forms of infection and they correlate with the case fatality rate. "
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    • "Filoviruses are zoonotic pathogens that are likely use bats as reservoir hosts (Negredo et al., 2011; Towner et al., 2007). Infection in humans frequently results in filoviral hemorrhagic fever (FHF), a syndrome typically associated with an abrupt onset of fever, myalgias, headache, and gastrointestinal symptoms (reviewed in (Kortepeter et al., 2011)). A rash and changes in coagulation are common; bleeding is also frequently seen but is not a universal manifestation. "
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