Article

Structural biology of type VI secretion systems.

CNRS, Laboratoire d'Ingénierie des Systèmes Macromoléculaires, UMR 7255, Institut de Microbiologie de la Méditerranée, Aix-Marseille Université, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20, France.
Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences (Impact Factor: 6.23). 04/2012; 367(1592):1102-11. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0209
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are transenvelope complexes specialized in the transport of proteins or domains directly into target cells. These systems are versatile as they can target either eukaryotic host cells and therefore modulate the bacteria-host interaction and pathogenesis or bacterial cells and therefore facilitate access to a specific niche. These molecular machines comprise at least 13 proteins. Although recent years have witnessed advances in the role and function of these secretion systems, little is known about how these complexes assemble in the cell envelope. Interestingly, the current information converges to the idea that T6SSs are composed of two subassemblies, one resembling the contractile bacteriophage tail, whereas the other subunits are embedded in the inner and outer membranes and anchor the bacteriophage-like structure to the cell envelope. In this review, we summarize recent structural information on individual T6SS components emphasizing the fact that T6SSs are composite systems, adapting subunits from various origins.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
167 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bacterial secretion systems often employ molecular chaperones to recognize and facilitate export of their substrates. Recent work demonstrated that a secreted component of the type VI secretion system (T6SS), hemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp), binds directly to effectors, enhancing their stability in the bacterial cytoplasm. Herein, we describe a quantitative cellular proteomics screen for T6S substrates that exploits this chaperone-like quality of Hcp. Application of this approach to the Hcp secretion island I-encoded T6SS (H1-T6SS) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa led to the identification of a novel effector protein, termed Tse4 (type VI secretion exported 4), subsequently shown to act as a potent intra-specific H1-T6SS-delivered antibacterial toxin. Interestingly, our screen failed to identify two predicted H1-T6SS effectors, Tse5 and Tse6, which differ from Hcp-stabilized substrates by the presence of toxin-associated PAAR-repeat motifs and genetic linkage to members of the valine-glycine repeat protein G (vgrG) genes. Genetic studies further distinguished these two groups of effectors: Hcp-stabilized effectors were found to display redundancy in interbacterial competition with respect to the requirement for the two H1-T6SS-exported VgrG proteins, whereas Tse5 and Tse6 delivery strictly required a cognate VgrG. Together, we propose that interaction with either VgrG or Hcp defines distinct pathways for T6S effector export.
    Molecular Microbiology 03/2014; · 4.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a supra-molecular complex akin to bacteriophage tails, with VgrG proteins acting as a puncturing device. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa H1-T6SS has been extensively characterized. It is involved in bacterial killing and in the delivery of three toxins, Tse1-3. Here, we demonstrate the independent contribution of the three H1-T6SS co-regulated vgrG genes, vgrG1abc, to bacterial killing. A putative toxin is encoded in the vicinity of each vgrG gene, supporting the concept of specific VgrG/toxin couples. In this respect, VgrG1c is involved in the delivery of an Rhs protein, RhsP1. The RhsP1 C terminus carries a toxic activity, from which the producing bacterium is protected by a cognate immunity. Similarly, VgrG1a-dependent toxicity is associated with the PA0093 gene encoding a two-domain protein with a putative toxin domain (Toxin_61) at the C terminus. Finally, VgrG1b-dependent killing is detectable upon complementation of a triple vgrG1abc mutant. The VgrG1b-dependent killing is mediated by PA0099, which presents the characteristics of the superfamily nuclease 2 toxin members. Overall, these data develop the concept that VgrGs are indispensable components for the specific delivery of effectors. Several additional vgrG genes are encoded on the P. aeruginosa genome and are not linked genetically to other T6SS genes. A closer inspection of these clusters reveals that they also encode putative toxins. Overall, these associations further support the notion of an original form of secretion system, in which VgrG acts as the carrier.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) delivers protein effectors to diverse cell types including prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, therefore participating in inter-bacterial competition and pathogenesis. The T6SS is constituted of an envelope-spanning complex anchoring a cytoplasmic tubular edifice. This tubular structure is evolutionarily, functionally and structurally related to the tail of contractile phages. It is composed of an inner tube tipped by a spike complex, and engulfed within a sheath-like structure. This structure assembles onto a platform called "baseplate" that is connected to the membrane sub-complex. The T6SS functions as a nano-crossbow: upon contraction of the sheath, the inner tube is propelled towards the target cell, allowing effector delivery. This review focuses on the architecture and biogenesis of this fascinating secretion machine, highlighting recent advances regarding the assembly of the membrane or tail complexes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Trafficking & Secretion.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2014; · 4.66 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
23 Downloads
Available from
Jun 4, 2014