Elastin degradation is associated with progressive aortic stiffening and all-cause mortality in predialysis chronic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT In the large conduit arteries, elastin is important in maintaining vascular compliance. Studies in animal models suggest that elastin degradation may promote arteriosclerotic vascular changes. There is already a well-established link between aortic stiffening and mortality in the general population and in patients undergoing dialysis. Elastin degradation is mediated by several proteases, including matrix metalloproteinase 2 and cathepsin S. Elastin turnover may be inferred by measuring serum levels of elastin-derived peptides. We analyzed the serum concentration of these biomarkers, their endogenous inhibitors, and aortic pulse wave velocity in 200 patients with stages 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease and then serially in a subgroup of 65 patients over 36 months. Serum matrix metalloproteinase 2, cathepsin S, and elastin-derived peptide levels were independently associated with baseline aortic pulse wave velocity and changes in stiffness over the follow-up period. Higher matrix metalloproteinase 2 and elastin-derived peptide levels were also independently associated with preexisting cardiovascular disease. In multivariable Cox regression, higher serum elastin-derived peptide levels were independently associated with increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio per SD increase=1.78; P=0.021). In predialysis chronic kidney disease, elastin degradation is an important determinant of arterial stiffness and is associated with all-cause mortality.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cathepsin K (CatK) is one of the most potent mammalian collagenases involved in atherosclerosis-based vascular disease. We investigated whether circulating CatK is associated with the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Two-hundred fifty-two consecutive subjects were enrolled from among patients who underwent coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound analyses. One-hundred thirty-two age-matched subjects served as controls. Plasma CatK, intact procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (I-PINP), and linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (ICTP) were measured. RESULTS: Patients with CAD had higher CatK levels (44.0 ± 31.2 versus 15.5 ± 8.3 ng/mL, P < 0.001) and ICTP/I-PINP ratios (0.2 ± 0.1 versus 0.04 ± 0.03, P < 0.001) than the controls. Patients with acute coronary syndrome had higher CatK levels than those with stable angina pectoris. Overall, linear regression analysis showed that the CatK levels correlated positively with ICTP/I-PINP ratios (r = 0.41, P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that CatK levels were independent predictors of CAD (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.23; P < 0.01). Furthermore, CatK levels were also correlated positively with percent plaque volumes and inversely with percent fibrous volumes by intravascular ultrasound. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicated that high levels of CatK are closely linked with the presence of CAD and that CatK serves as a novel biomarker for CAD.Atherosclerosis 01/2013; · 3.79 Impact Factor