Silymarin and harpagoside are derived from drugs which are used for their protective effects against hepatotoxicity and inflammatory processes. Both are now investigated with respect to the respiratory tract. They were able to reduce the release of the inflammatory cytokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted) from BEAS-2B cells in a concentration-dependent manner when stimulated by a cytokine mix (10 ng/mL of TNF- α and IFN- γ). This effect was not due to a possible toxic effect (control experiments using LDH release as a marker). Silymarin but not harpagoside was able to increase ciliary beat frequency. Effects were comparable to positive controls (isoprenaline and salbutamol). Silymarin also increases mucociliary clearance. In conclusion, silymarin should be further investigated for its clinical use in distinct respiratory diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Harpagoside is an iridoid glycoside that was first isolated from Harpagophytum
procumbens (devil’s claw, Pedaliaceae), a medicinal plant in which it is the major
constituent of the iridoid pool. Both the pure compound and devil’s claw extracts have
potent anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. According to the
European Pharmacopoeia commercial devil’s claw products should contain at least 1.2%
harpagoside. However, the compound has also been isolated from several other plant
species and in vitro plant culture systems. Recent advances in knowledge of harpagoside
distribution, biosynthesis/accumulation and pharmacology are summarized in this review.
We also discuss the possible synergism and/or antagonism between major constituents in
harpagoside-containing phytopharmaceutical products. Finally, future perspectives for its
potential application are highlighted.
Yun-Mi Kim, Jin-A Lee, Bock-Gie Jung, Tae-Hoon Kim, Bong-Joo Lee, Guk-Hyun Suh
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