Efficacy of combined therapy with liposome-encapsulated meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol in treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 4.57). 03/2012; 56(6):2858-67. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00208-12
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An innovative liposomal formulation of meglumine antimoniate (LMA) was recently reported to promote both long-term parasite suppression and reduction of infectivity to sand flies in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. However, 5 months after treatment, parasites were still found in the bone marrow of all treated dogs. In order to improve treatment with LMA, the present study aimed to evaluate its efficacy in combination with allopurinol. Mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum were treated with six doses of LMA (6.5 mg Sb/kg of body weight/dose) given at 4-day intervals, plus allopurinol (20 mg/kg/24 h per os) for 140 days. Comparison was made with groups treated with LMA, allopurinol, empty liposomes plus allopurinol, empty liposomes, and saline. Dogs remained without treatment from day 140 to 200 after the start of treatment. The drug combination promoted both clinical improvement of dogs and significant reduction in the parasitic load in bone marrow and spleen on days 140 and 200 compared to these parameters in the pretreatment period. This is in contrast with the other protocols, which did not result in significant reduction of the bone marrow parasite load on day 200. Strikingly, the combined treatment, in contrast to the other regimens, induced negative quantitative PCR (qPCR) results in the liver of 100% of the dogs. Both xenodiagnosis and skin parasite determination by qPCR indicated that the drug combination was effective in blocking the transmission of skin parasites to sand flies. Based on all of the parasitological tests performed on day 200, 50% of the animals that received the combined treatment were considered cured.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A recombinant cysteine proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi (rLdccys1) was previously shown to induce protective immune responses against murine and canine visceral leishmaniasis. These findings encouraged us to use rLdccys1 in the immunotherapy of naturally infected dogs from Teresina, Piauí, a region of high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Thirty naturally infected mongrel dogs displaying clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis were randomly divided in three groups: one group received three doses of rLdccys1 in combination with the adjuvant Propionibacterium acnes at one month interval between each dose; a second group received three doses of P. acnes alone; a third group received saline. The main findings were: 1) dogs that received rLdccys1 with P. acnes did not display increase of the following clinical signs: weight loss, alopecia, onychogryphosis, cachexia, anorexia, apathy, skin lesions, hyperkeratosis, ocular secretion, and enlarged lymph nodes; they also exhibited a significant reduction in the spleen parasite load in comparison to the control dogs; 2) rLdccys1-treated dogs exhibited a significant delayed type cutaneous hypersensitivity elicited by the recombinant antigen, as well as high IgG2 serum titers and low IgG1 serum titers; sera from rLdccys1-treated dogs also contained high IFN-γ and low IL-10 concentrations; 3) control dogs exhibited all of the clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis and had low serum IgG2 and IFN-γ levels and high concentrations of IgG1 and IL-10; 4) all of the dogs treated with rLdccys1 were alive 12 months after treatment, whereas dogs which received either saline or P. acnes alone died within 3 to 7 months. These findings illustrate the potential use of rLdccys1 as an additional tool for the immunotherapy of canine visceral leishmaniasis and support further studies designed to improve the efficacy of this recombinant antigen for the treatment of this neglected disease.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 03/2014; 8(3):e2729. · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This case study discusses in detail for the first time the diagnosis and management of a case of leishmaniosis in a dog imported to Australia. The dog presented with epistaxis and a non-regenerative anaemia five years after being imported from Europe. Protozoa were identified within macrophages in bone marrow and splenic cytology. A Leishmania indirect fluorescent antibody test was performed and was positive while an Ehrlichia canis antibody test was negative. Polymerase chain reaction of the ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions of skin, lymph node, spleen and bone marrow were all positive for Leishmania infantum. The dog was treated with amphotericin B with a strong clinical response. The importance of thorough diagnostics in non-endemic areas, particularly Australia, is discussed. Treatment with amphotericin B is discussed. Vigilance, disease reporting and response frameworks are recommended for non-endemic areas.
    Veterinary Parasitology 01/2014; · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease that affects poorest population mainly in developing countries, representing one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity. Therefore, efforts to find new chemotherapeutics for leishmaniasis remain a priority. Previous reports demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activity of nitazoxanide, an antiprotozoan agent used in the treatment of infectious diarrhea. The present work was carried out to determine the effect of nitazoxanide in combination with current antileishmanial drugs. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum amastigotes in order to calculate the 50% and 90% inhibitory concentration values. Drug interactions were assessed with fixed ratio isobologram method and fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC50 and FIC90); sum of FIC (ΣFIC50 and ΣFIC90) and overall mean ΣFIC (xΣFIC50 and xΣFIC90) were calculated for each combination. The nature of interactions was classified according to the xΣFIC50 and xΣFIC90. The combination between nitazoxanide and amphotericin B, Glucantime(®), miltefosine and sitamaquine showed xΣFIC50 values of 1.13, 0.83, 1.06 and 0.94, respectively, indicating additive interaction. Considering the in vitro activity of nitazoxanide and the obtained results, further in vivo studies may be considered to evaluate possible drug interactions in visceral leishmaniasis.
    Acta tropica 11/2013; · 2.79 Impact Factor


Available from
Jun 2, 2014