Cho I, Blaser MJ.. The human microbiome: at the interface of health and disease. Nat Rev Genet 13: 260-270

Department of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA.
Nature Reviews Genetics (Impact Factor: 36.98). 03/2012; 13(4):260-70. DOI: 10.1038/nrg3182
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Interest in the role of the microbiome in human health has burgeoned over the past decade with the advent of new technologies for interrogating complex microbial communities. The large-scale dynamics of the microbiome can be described by many of the tools and observations used in the study of population ecology. Deciphering the metagenome and its aggregate genetic information can also be used to understand the functional properties of the microbial community. Both the microbiome and metagenome probably have important functions in health and disease; their exploration is a frontier in human genetics.

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    • "Novel potential pathogens might include opportunistic microbes that are typical members of a human host microbiome. Only under unusual circumstances might they become pathogenic; for example when the human host becomes immune-compromised, the microbiome is altered in a manner that allows a particular microbe to reach high abundances and become pathogenic [29], or virulence increases due to a genetic or physiological change. Other examples of novel potential pathogens are those newly discovered in humans, but which do not yet cause clinical illness. "
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial infections are as old as the hosts they sicken, but interest in the emergence of pathogens and the diseases they cause has been accelerating rapidly. The term 'emerging infectious disease' was coined in the mid-1900s to describe changes in disease dynamics in the modern era. Both the term and the phenomena it is meant to characterize have evolved and diversified over time, leading to inconsistencies and confusion. Here, we review the evolution of the term 'emerging infectious disease' (EID) in the literature as applied to human hosts. We examine the pathways (e.g., speciation or strain differentiation in the causative agent vs. rapid geographic expansion of an existing pathogen) by which diseases emerge. We propose a new framework for disease and pathogen emergence to improve prioritization. And we illustrate how the operational definition of an EID affects conclusions concerning the pathways by which diseases emerge and the ecological and socioeconomic drivers that elicit emergence. As EIDs appear to be increasing globally, and resources for science level off or decline , the research community is pushed to prioritize its focus on the most threatening diseases, riskiest potential pathogens, and the places they occur. The working definition of emerging infectious diseases and pathogens plays a crucial role in prioritization, but we argue that the current definitions may be impeding these efforts. We propose a new framework for classifying pathogens and diseases as " emerging " that distinguishes EIDs from emerging pathogens and novel potential pathogens. We suggest prioritization of: 1) EIDs for adaptation and mitigation, 2) emerging pathogens for preventive measures, and 3) novel potential pathogens for intensive surveillance.
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    • "The bacterial species that colonized C57BL/6 and db/db wounds were similar but the db/db skin on average has higher bacterial density than C57BL/6 (not shown). Furthermore , these bacteria are known to be similar to normal human skin microbiota [39]. Thus, skin microbiota of nonwounded skin in our model is very similar to that of humans and is a contributor to the biofilm found in chronic wounds. "
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    • "Recent advances in High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) technologies have enabled the study of unculturable/difficult to culture microbial communities and have shown that the human body harbors microbial ecosystems that interact with human physiological processes, thus influencing health and disease (Cho & Blaser, 2012; De Vos & De Vos, 2012; Pflughoeft & Versalovic, 2012). The collection of genes and genomes belonging to these microbial communities, the microbiome, has been studied using HTS to demonstrate the extent to which the human microbiota plays a role in human health issues ranging from obesity to respiratory disease (Huang, 2013; Turnbaugh et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: The role of the human microbiome in schizophrenia remains largely unexplored. The microbiome has been shown to alter brain development and modulate behavior and cognition in animals through gut-brain connections, and research in humans suggests that it may be a modulating factor in many disorders. This study reports findings from a shotgun metagenomic analysis of the oropharyngeal microbiome in 16 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 controls. High-level differences were evident at both the phylum and genus levels, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria dominating both schizophrenia patients and controls, and Ascomycota being more abundant in schizophrenia patients than controls. Controls were richer in species but less even in their distributions, i.e., dominated by fewer species, as opposed to schizophrenia patients. Lactic acid bacteria were relatively more abundant in schizophrenia, including species of textitLactobacilli and textitBifidobacterium, which have been shown to modulate chronic inflammation. We also found textitEubacterium halii, a lactate-utilizing species. Functionally, the microbiome of schizophrenia patients was characterized by an increased number of metabolic pathways related to metabolite transport systems including siderophores, glutamate, and vitamin B12. In contrast, carbohydrate and lipid pathways and energy metabolism were abundant in controls. These findings suggest that the oropharyngeal microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia is significantly different compared to controls, and that particular microbial species and metabolic pathways differentiate both groups. Confirmation of these findings in larger and more diverse samples, e.g., gut microbiome, will contribute to elucidating potential links between schizophrenia and the human microbiota.
    PeerJ 08/2015; 3(8):e1140. DOI:10.7717/peerj.1140 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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