Barth syndrome in a female patient.
ABSTRACT Barth syndrome (BTHS) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy and cyclic neutropenia in male patients. It is caused by mutations in the TAZ gene coding for the tafazzin, a protein involved in the remodeling of cardiolipin. Loss of cardiolipin in the inner mitochondrial membrane results in respiratory chain dysfunction. No specific symptom has been identified in female carriers.
We report the first case of BTHS confirmed by TAZ gene analysis in a female patient. This girl experienced severe heart failure at 1-month of age. Echocardiography diagnosed dilated-hypokinetic and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with noncompaction of the left ventricle. Initial metabolic screening was normal, except for a cyclic neutropenia. Respiratory chain analysis performed on skin fibroblasts revealed a decreased activity of complexes I, III and IV. Screening on a bloodspot showed abnormal monolysocardiolipin:cardiolipin ratio, later confirmed on cultured fibroblasts, indicative of BTHS. Genetic analyses finally confirmed the diagnosis of BTHS, by showing a large intragenic deletion of exons 1 through 5 in the TAZ gene. Cytogenetic analysis showed mosaicism for monosomy X and for a ring X chromosome with a large deletion of the long arm including the Xq28 region. The girl presented recurrent episodes of severe acute heart failure, progressive muscle weakness, and had a fatal septic shock at 3 years.
This case highlights that the diagnosis of BTHS should also be suspected in female patients presenting a phenotype similar to affected boys. In these cases, analysis of the monolysocardiolipin:cardiolipin ratio in bloodspots is a rapid and sensitive screening tool for BTHS. However clinical expression in a carrier female requires hemizygosity for the mutated allele of the TAZ gene, which supposes a rearrangement of the TAZ gene region on the other X chromosome.
Article: Barth syndrome.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: First described in 1983, Barth syndrome (BTHS) is widely regarded as a rare X-linked genetic disease characterised by cardiomyopathy (CM), skeletal myopathy, growth delay, neutropenia and increased urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid (3-MGCA). Fewer than 200 living males are known worldwide, but evidence is accumulating that the disorder is substantially under-diagnosed. Clinical features include variable combinations of the following wide spectrum: dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE), left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC), ventricular arrhythmia, sudden cardiac death, prolonged QTc interval, delayed motor milestones, proximal myopathy, lethargy and fatigue, neutropenia (absent to severe; persistent, intermittent or perfectly cyclical), compensatory monocytosis, recurrent bacterial infection, hypoglycaemia, lactic acidosis, growth and pubertal delay, feeding problems, failure to thrive, episodic diarrhoea, characteristic facies, and X-linked family history. Historically regarded as a cardiac disease, BTHS is now considered a multi-system disorder which may be first seen by many different specialists or generalists. Phenotypic breadth and variability present a major challenge to the diagnostician: some children with BTHS have never been neutropenic, whereas others lack increased 3-MGCA and a minority has occult or absent CM. Furthermore, BTHS was first described in 2010 as an unrecognised cause of fetal death. Disabling mutations or deletions of the tafazzin (TAZ) gene, located at Xq28, cause the disorder by reducing remodeling of cardiolipin, a principal phospholipid of the inner mitochondrial membrane. A definitive biochemical test, based on detecting abnormal ratios of different cardiolipin species, was first described in 2008. Key areas of differential diagnosis include metabolic and viral cardiomyopathies, mitochondrial diseases, and many causes of neutropenia and recurrent male miscarriage and stillbirth. Cardiolipin testing and TAZ sequencing now provide relatively rapid diagnostic testing, both prospectively and retrospectively, from a range of fresh or stored tissues, blood or neonatal bloodspots. TAZ sequencing also allows female carrier detection and antenatal screening. Management of BTHS includes medical therapy of CM, cardiac transplantation (in 14% of patients), antibiotic prophylaxis and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy. Multidisciplinary teams/clinics are essential for minimising hospital attendances and allowing many more individuals with BTHS to live into adulthood.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 02/2013; 8(1):23. · 5.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Barth syndrome (BS) is an X-linked infantile-onset cardioskeletal disease characterized by cardiomyopathy, hypotonia, growth delay, neutropenia and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. It is caused by mutations in the TAZ gene encoding tafazzin, a protein involved in the metabolism of cardiolipin, a mitochondrial-specific phospholipid involved in mitochondrial energy production. METHODS: Clinical, biochemical and molecular characterization of a group of six male patients suspected of having BS. Three patients presented early with severe metabolic decompensation including respiratory distress, oxygen desaturation and cardiomyopathy and died within the first year of life. The remaining three patients had cardiomyopathy, hypotonia and growth delay and are still alive. Cardiomyopathy was detected during pregnancy through a routine check-up in one patient. All patients exhibited 3-methylglutaconic aciduria and neutropenia, when tested and five of them also had lactic acidosis. RESULTS: We confirmed the diagnosis of BS with sequence analysis of the TAZ gene, and found five new mutations, c.641A>G p.His214Arg, c.284dupG (p.Thr96Aspfs*37), c.678_691del14 (p.Tyr227Trpfs*79), g.8009_16445del8437 and g.[9777_9814del38; 9911-?_14402del] and the known nonsense mutation c.367C>T (p.Arg123Term). The two gross rearrangements ablated TAZ exons 6 to 11 and probably originated by non-allelic homologous recombination and by Serial Replication Slippage (SRS), respectively. The identification of the breakpoints boundaries of the gross deletions allowed the direct detection of heterozygosity in carrier females. CONCLUSIONS: Lactic acidosis associated with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria is highly suggestive of BS, whilst the severity of the metabolic decompensation at disease onset should be considered for prognostic purposes. Mutation analysis of the TAZ gene is necessary for confirming the clinical and biochemical diagnosis in probands in order to identify heterozygous carriers and supporting prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 02/2013; 8(1):27. · 5.83 Impact Factor