Reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV: findings from an early infant diagnosis program in south-south region of Nigeria

FHI 360, Nigeria, Plot 1073 J,S Tarka Street, Area 3 Garki Abuja.
BMC Public Health (Impact Factor: 2.32). 03/2012; 12(1):184. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-184
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Early diagnosis of HIV in infants provides a critical opportunity to strengthen follow-up of HIV-exposed children and assure early access to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment for infected children. This study describes findings from an Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) program and the effectiveness of a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) intervention in six health facilities in Cross-River and Akwa-Ibom states, south-south Nigeria.
This was a retrospective study. Records of 702 perinatally exposed babies aged six weeks to 18 months who had a DNA PCR test between November 2007 and July 2009 were reviewed. Details of the ARV regimen received to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), breastfeeding choices, HIV test results, turn around time (TAT) for results and post test ART enrolment status of the babies were analysed.
Two-thirds of mother-baby pairs received ARVs and 560 (80%) babies had ever been breastfed. Transmission rates for mother-baby pairs who received ARVs for PMTCT was 4.8% (CI 1.3, 8.3) at zero to six weeks of age compared to 19.5% (CI 3.0, 35.5) when neither baby nor mother received an intervention. Regardless of intervention, the transmission rates for babies aged six weeks to six months who had mixed feeding was 25.6% (CI 29.5, 47.1) whereas the transmission rates for those who were exclusively breastfed was 11.8% (CI 5.4, 18.1). Vertical transmission of HIV was eight times (AOR 7.8, CI: 4.52-13.19) more likely in the sub-group of mother-baby pairs who did not receive ARVS compared with mother-baby pairs that did receive ARVs. The median TAT for test results was 47 days (IQR: 35-58). A follow-up of 125 HIV positive babies found that 31 (25%) were enrolled into a paediatric ART program, nine (7%) were known to have died before the return of their DNA PCR results, and 85 (67%) could not be traced and were presumed to be lost-to-follow-up.
Reduction of MTCT of HIV is possible with effective PMTCT interventions, including improved access to ARVs for PMTCT and appropriate infant feeding practices. Loss to follow up of HIV exposed infants is a challenge and requires strategies to enhance retention.

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Available from: Bolatito Aiyenigba, Aug 26, 2015
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    • "Resource-limited countries in Sub-Saharan Africa continue to bear the greatest burden of maternal to child transmission and account for the highest number of new pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections globally. Nigeria alone is responsible for 30% of the global burden of maternal to child transmission of HIV and has joined a group of 22 countries as part of a global initiative to reduce the number of new pediatric HIV infections [3]. Prevention of maternal to child transmission (PMTCT) has become a key public health priority in Nigeria, a country faced with 56,681 annual HIV-positive births and more than 210,000 women living with HIV [2] [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Early diagnosis of HIV is crucial to ensure early antiretroviral (ARV) treatment which is associated with lower mortality in HIV-infected children. This study reports the prevalence of HIV infection and the factors associated to mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in an Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) program in Bertoua, Cameroon. We reviewed the records of 112 HIV-exposed infants aged six weeks to 18 months who had an HIV-1 DNA PCR test done in 2010. Data included socio-demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations of HIV, ARV prophylaxis, feeding options and results of the PCR tests. The median age at first HIV testing was 4 months (IQR, 2-7). Ninety-one point one percent of infants and 65.2% of mothers did not receive ARV prophylaxis. Fifty infants (44.6%) were exclusively breastfed, 37 (33%) received formula feeding and 25 (22.4%) received mixed feeding. The prevalence of HIV in the infants was 11.6%. MTCT of HIV was significantly associated with mixed feeding (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 6.7, 95% CI 1.6-28.3; p=0.009) and an age at 1st PCR test greater than 6 months (aOR: 6.5, 95% CI 1.4-29.3; p=0.014). The mothers of 66.1% of the infants tested returned to collect the result. There is a high rate of MTCT of HIV in this setting, due to a poor implementation of the PMTCT program. There is a critical need to increase the use of ARV prophylaxis, and to improve rapid first testing and completion of the EID. The infant feeding practices also have to be improved.
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