Application of LC-high-resolution MS with 'intelligent' data mining tools for screening reactive drug metabolites.
ABSTRACT Biotransformation of chemically stable compounds to reactive metabolites that can bind covalently to macromolecules (such as proteins and DNA) is considered an undesirable property of drug candidates. Due to the possible link, which has not yet been conclusively demonstrated, between reactive metabolites and adverse drug reactions, screening for metabolic activation of lead compounds through in vitro chemical trapping experiments has become an integral part of the drug discovery process in many laboratories. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advances in the application of high-resolution MS. These advances facilitated the development of accurate-mass-based data mining tools for high-throughput screening of reactive drug metabolites in drug discovery.
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ABSTRACT: Sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis is a powerful and essential tool for metabolite identification in drug discovery and development. An MS(2) (or tandem, MS/MS) mass spectrum is acquired from the fragmentation of a precursor ion by multiple methods including information-dependent acquisition (IDA), SWATH (sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra), and MS(All) (also called MS(E)) techniques. We compared these three techniques in their capabilities to produce comprehensive MS(2) data by assessing both metabolite MS(2) acquisition hit rate and the quality of MS(2) spectra. Rat liver microsomal incubations from eight test compounds were analyzed with four methods (IDA, MMDF (multiple mass defect filters)-IDA, SWATH, or MS(All)) using an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-qudrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF MS) platform. A combined total of 227 drug-related materials (DRM) were detected from all eight test article incubations, and among those, 5% and 4% of DRM were not triggered for MS(2) acquisition with IDA and MMDF-IDA methods, respectively. When the same samples were spiked to an equal volume of blank rat urine (urine sample), the DRM without MS(2) acquisition increased to 29% and 18%, correspondingly. In contrast, 100% of DRM in both matrixes were subjected to MS(2) acquisition with either the SWATH or MS(All) method. However, the quality of the acquired MS(2) spectra decreased in the order of IDA, SWATH, and MS(All) methods. An average of 10, 9, and 6 out of 10 most abundant ions in MS(2) spectra were the real product ions of DRM detected in microsomal samples from IDA, SWATH, and MS(All) methods, respectively. The corresponding numbers declined to 9, 6, and 3 in the urine samples. Overall, IDA-based methods acquired qualitatively better MS(2) spectra but with a lower MS(2) acquisition hit rate than the other two methods. SWATH outperformed the MS(All) method given its better quality of MS(2) spectra with an identical MS(2) acquisition hit rate.Analytical Chemistry 01/2014; 86(2). DOI:10.1021/ac403385y · 5.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Methylenedioxy designer drugs of abuse such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can be selectively toxic to serotonergic neurons and glutathione (GSH) adducts have been implicated in its neurotoxicity. The catecholic demethylenyl metabolites of MDMA, 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine and 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine, are metabolically oxidized to the corresponding ortho-quinones, which are highly reactive intermediates. These intermediates can then be conjugated with GSH preventing cellular damage. Furthermore, glutathionyl transferase (GST) activity was described to be irreversibly inhibited by the catechols dopamine, α-methyldopa and their GSH conjugates. Therefore, the aims of the present work were the detection and characterization of GSH conjugates of ten methylenedioxy drugs of abuse and their phase I metabolites as well as to assess their inhibition potency on GST activity. The substrates were incubated using human placental GST with or without preincubation by cytochrome P450 enzymes preparations. GST inhibition was tested using chlorodinitrobenzene GSH conjugation as marker reaction. GSH conjugates were analyzed and characterized using LC-high-resolution-MS/MS. For confirmation of postulated fragmentation patterns, formation of GSH conjugates of selected deuterated analogs (deuterated analogue approach, DAA) of the investigated drugs was explored. For the methylenedioxy amphetamines the following steps could be identified: conjugation of the parent compounds at position 2, 5, 6, of the demethylenyl metabolites at position 2 and 5, and of the further deaminated demethylenyl metabolites at position 2. For the β-keto-phenylalkylamine and pyrrolidinophenone, conjugation of the demethylenyl metabolites and of the deaminated demethylenyl metabolites at position 2 could be identified. The DAA allowed the differentiation of the 2 and 5/6 isomers by confirmation of the postulated mass spectral fragments. Finally, the tested drugs and phase I metabolites showed no inhibition potency on GST activity.Analytica chimica acta 04/2014; 822:37-50. DOI:10.1016/j.aca.2014.03.017 · 4.52 Impact Factor