Article

Neonatal outcomes in women with sonographically identified uterine leiomyomata.

Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians (Impact Factor: 1.36). 03/2012; 25(6):710-3. DOI: 10.3109/14767058.2011.572205
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We sought to compare perinatal outcomes between women with and without leiomyomata.
This is a retrospective cohort study comparing neonatal outcomes in women with and without uterine leiomyomata discovered at routine second trimester obstetric ultrasonography, all of whom delivered at a single institution. Potential confounders such as maternal age, parity, race, ethnicity, medical insurance, previous uterine surgery, fetal presentation, length of labor, mode of delivery, presence of placenta previa, placental abruption, chorioamnionitis, and epidural use were controlled for using multivariable logistic regression.
From 1993 to 2003, 15,104 women underwent routine second trimester prenatal ultrasonography, with 401 (2.7%) women identified with at least one leiomyoma. By univariate and multivariable analyses, the presence of leiomyomata was associated with statistically significant increased risks for preterm delivery at <34 weeks [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.6], <32 weeks (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.2), and <28 weeks (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.8). An association with increased risk for intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD) was also demonstrated (AOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0-6.9). When IUFD was examined before and after 32 weeks' gestation, the finding only persisted at earlier gestational ages (<32 weeks: AOR 4.2, 95% CI 1.2-14.7 vs. >32 weeks: AOR 0.82, 95% CI 0.1-6.2).
Regardless of maternal age, ethnicity, and parity, pregnant women with leiomyomata are at increased risk for preterm birth and IUFD. This did not translate to lower birth weight outcomes among term patients, suggesting that LBW is more likely due to preterm birth than growth restriction. These results may be useful for preconception and prenatal counseling of women with leiomyomata.

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: Estimating the impact of sonographically identified multiple or large (≥ 5 cm in diameter) fibroids on obstetric outcomes. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 219 women with uterine fibroids (identified on a routine second-trimester ultrasound survey over a 3-year period, 2010-2012) and their age-matched controls. Inclusion criteria were singleton pregnancy, delivery at more than 24 weeks of gestation and no pathological conditions (chronic hypertension, gestational diabetes or pre-existing diabetes mellitus, uterine anomalies or fetal malformations). Results: Compared to women with no fibroids, women with multiple fibroids (n=34) had a significantly higher rate of preterm birth (29.4% vs 5%, p<0.001), cesarean section (73.5% vs 37%, p<0.001), and breech presentation (11.8% vs 2.7%, p=0.04). Women with large fibroids (n=48) had an higher rate of preterm birth (16.7% vs 5% , p=0.01) and pPROM (10.4% vs 0.5%, p<0.001). By multivariate analysis, only multiple fibroids and previous preterm birth showed an independent significant association with preterm birth (OR =7.37, 95% CI 2.50-21.68 and OR =13.01, 95% CI 3.56-47.52, respectively). Conclusions: Women with uterine fibroids are at an increased risk of obstetric complications. In particular, multiple rather than large fibroids are associated with a significantly increased risk of preterm birth and cesarean delivery while large fibroids are associated with a higher risk of pPROM. No correlation with IUGR, placenta previa or placental abruption was found.
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