Neonatal outcomes in women with sonographically identified uterine leiomyomata.
ABSTRACT We sought to compare perinatal outcomes between women with and without leiomyomata.
This is a retrospective cohort study comparing neonatal outcomes in women with and without uterine leiomyomata discovered at routine second trimester obstetric ultrasonography, all of whom delivered at a single institution. Potential confounders such as maternal age, parity, race, ethnicity, medical insurance, previous uterine surgery, fetal presentation, length of labor, mode of delivery, presence of placenta previa, placental abruption, chorioamnionitis, and epidural use were controlled for using multivariable logistic regression.
From 1993 to 2003, 15,104 women underwent routine second trimester prenatal ultrasonography, with 401 (2.7%) women identified with at least one leiomyoma. By univariate and multivariable analyses, the presence of leiomyomata was associated with statistically significant increased risks for preterm delivery at <34 weeks [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.6], <32 weeks (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.2), and <28 weeks (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.8). An association with increased risk for intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD) was also demonstrated (AOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0-6.9). When IUFD was examined before and after 32 weeks' gestation, the finding only persisted at earlier gestational ages (<32 weeks: AOR 4.2, 95% CI 1.2-14.7 vs. >32 weeks: AOR 0.82, 95% CI 0.1-6.2).
Regardless of maternal age, ethnicity, and parity, pregnant women with leiomyomata are at increased risk for preterm birth and IUFD. This did not translate to lower birth weight outcomes among term patients, suggesting that LBW is more likely due to preterm birth than growth restriction. These results may be useful for preconception and prenatal counseling of women with leiomyomata.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the extent to which uterine leiomyomas are associated with characteristics of pregnancy, labor, and neonatal outcome recorded on birth certificates. In a population-based series of women who delivered singleton live infants in Washington state from 1987-1993, we linked computerized birth certificates and hospital discharge records to investigate the relationship between uterine leiomyomas and complications in pregnancy and delivery. Subjects were 2065 women with uterine leiomyomas noted on computerized hospital discharge records. From the remaining records, a comparison group of women without uterine leiomyomas diagnoses were selected at random and frequency-matched by birth year to women with leiomyomas. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of pregnancy or delivery complications in relation to uterine leiomyomas after multivariate adjustment. Women with leiomyomas were more likely than controls to be over age 35 at delivery, nulliparous, or black. We observed independent associations between uterine leiomyomas and abruptio placentae (OR 3. 87, 95% CI 1.63, 9.17), first trimester bleeding (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1. 05, 3.20), dysfunctional labor (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.26, 2.72), and breech presentation (OR 3.98, 95% CI 3.07, 5.16). The risk of cesarean was also higher among women with uterine leiomyomas (OR 6. 39, 95% CI 5.46, 7.50), but a portion of the excess risk might have been due to biased detection of leiomyomas at cesarean delivery. Leiomyomas appear to increase likelihood of complications during pregnancy, labor, and delivery.Obstetrics and Gynecology 06/2000; 95(5):764-9. · 4.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of submucosal leiomyomas on endometrial structure in women with symptomatic clinical findings was studied retrospectively. The endometrial histology from 13 hysterectomies for uterine leiomyomas was examined using three 2-mm sections of endometrium (one overlying a submucosal leiomyoma and two without underlying leiomyomas). Endometrial thickness, gland number and appearance, vessel number and diameter, and stromal inflammation were assessed. The thickness of the myometrium between the leiomyoma and the overlying 2-mm section of endometrium analyzed was also evaluated. The control group consisted of seven nonmyomatous uteri removed for benign disease. Analysis of the endometrium with underlying submucosal leiomyomas identified two groups using endometrial gland number as the criterion for this division. Five cases (group A) were found to have no endometrial glands, while the remaining eight (group B) had an average gland number of 74.5 per 2-mm section of endometrium. The mean gland number for the control group was 82.6, showing no significant difference from group B. Group A had an average endometrial area (2-mm thickness) of 0.38 mm2, and group B had an average area of 4.47 mm2, for a significant difference (t = -3.76, P = .007). Comparison of the two groups with the control group (mean area, 4.71 mm2) showed a significant difference in endometrial area only with group A (t = -7.64, P < .0005). A significant difference (t = -2.93, P = .019) was observed in the analysis of the thickness of the myometrium between the leiomyoma and overlying endometrium between groups A (mean thickness, 0.53 mm) and B (mean thickness, 1.70 mm).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)The Journal of reproductive medicine 09/1994; 39(8):579-84. · 0.75 Impact Factor
Article: Obstetric complications of fibroids.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effect of uterine fibroids on fecundity and pregnancy outcome is difficult to determine with any degree of accuracy; this is due, in large part, to the lack of adequate large clinical trials. In general, the literature tends to underestimate the prevalence of fibroids in pregnancy and overestimate the complications that are attributed to them. In contrast to popular opinion, most fibroids do not exhibit a significant change in volume during pregnancy, although those that do increase in size tend to do so primarily in the first trimester. Although most pregnancies are unaffected by the presence of uterine fibroids, large submucosal and retro-placental fibroids seem to impart a greater risk for complications, including pain (degeneration), vaginal bleeding, placental abruption, IUGR, and preterm labor and birth. Preconception myomectomy to improve reproductive outcome can be considered on an individual basis, but likely has a place only in women who have recurrent pregnancy loss, large submucosal fibroids, and no other identifiable cause for recurrent miscarriage. Antepartum myomectomy should be reserved for women who have subserosal or pedunculated fibroids and intractable fibroid pain that are unresponsive to medical therapy and who are in the first or second trimester of pregnancy. Myomectomy at the time of cesarean delivery is associated with significant morbidity (hemorrhage) and should be pursued with caution and only in select patients.Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 04/2006; 33(1):153-69. · 1.45 Impact Factor