The FA pathway counteracts oxidative stress through selective protection of antioxidant defense gene promoters

Divisions of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 10.45). 03/2012; 119(18):4142-51. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2011-09-381970
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases including Fanconi anemia (FA), a genetic disorder associated with BM failure and cancer. Here we show that major antioxidant defense genes are down-regulated in FA patients, and that gene down-regulation is selectively associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in the promoters of the antioxidant defense genes. Assessment of promoter activity and DNA damage repair kinetics shows that increased initial damage, rather than a reduced repair rate, contributes to the augmented oxidative DNA damage. Mechanistically, FA proteins act in concert with the chromatin-remodeling factor BRG1 to protect the promoters of antioxidant defense genes from oxidative damage. Specifically, BRG1 binds to the promoters of the antioxidant defense genes at steady state. On challenge with oxidative stress, FA proteins are recruited to promoter DNA, which correlates with significant increase in the binding of BRG1 within promoter regions. In addition, oxidative stress-induced FANCD2 ubiquitination is required for the formation of a FA-BRG1-promoter complex. Taken together, these data identify a role for the FA pathway in cellular antioxidant defense.

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    • "The deficiency of Brg1 results in the dissolution of discrete heterochromatin domains, aberrant mitotic progression, and genomic instability, which eventually induces cell death or cell apoptosis [12]. A recent study showed that Brg1 can bind to the promoters of antioxidant defense genes and protect cells from oxidative damage [13], which means that Brg1 can exert antioxidative effect. Furthermore, increasing evidence shows that Brg1 can regulate gene expression during cardiac growth, differentiation, and hypertrophy [14] [15] [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) is a key gene in inducing the expression of important endogenous antioxidant enzymes, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) which is central to cardioprotection, while cardiac HO-1 expression is reduced in diabetes. It is unknown whether or not cardiac Brg1 expression is reduced in diabetes. We hypothesize that cardiac Brg1 expression is reduced in diabetes which can be restored by antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Control (C) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (D) rats were treated with NAC in drinking water or placebo for 4 weeks. Plasma and cardiac free15-F2t-isoprostane in diabetic rats were increased, accompanied with increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), while cardiac Brg1, p-STAT3 and HO-1 protein expression levels were significantly decreased. Left ventricle weight/body weight ratio was higher, while the peak velocities of early (E) and late (A) flow ratio was lower in diabetic than in C rats. NAC normalized tissue and plasma levels of 15-F2t-isoprostane, significantly increased cardiac Brg1, HO-1 and p-STAT3 protein expression levels and reduced TNF-alpha and IL-6, resulting in improved cardiac function. In conclusion, myocardial Brg1 is reduced in diabetes and enhancement of cardiac Brg1 expression may represent a novel mechanism whereby NAC confers cardioprotection.
    Journal of Diabetes Research 06/2013; 2013(1):716219. DOI:10.1155/2013/716219 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a heterogeneous disease associated with a bone marrow failure, cancer predisposition and hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents. To date, 15 different genes have been shown to cause FA, all of which have some role in repair of defective DNA interstrand crosslinks. On a biochemical level, many FA individuals display insufficient growth hormone production, abnormal glucose or insulin metabolism. Clinical phenotype may include hydrocephalia, the erythrophagocytosis and diabetes mellitus, thus linking FA with metabolic disorders that involve impaired oxygen metabolism and mitochondrial alterations. Our recent study demonstrates the decrease of FA mitochondrial membrane potential, low ATP production, impaired oxygen uptake and pathological changes in the morphology of FA mitochondria. This is accompanied by inactivation of the enzymes responsible for energy production and detoxification of ROS. We also propose that FA oversensitivity to DNA crosslinkers may be caused by the overproduction of mitochondrial ROS.
    02/2013; 1(1):e24048. DOI:10.4161/rdis.24048
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    ABSTRACT: Cited By (since 1996):4, Export Date: 18 October 2014
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