Transcription factor CHF1/Hey2 regulates EC coupling and heart failure in mice through regulation of FKBP12.6.
ABSTRACT Heart failure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society. The cardiovascular transcription factor CHF1/Hey2 has been linked to experimental heart failure in mice, but the mechanisms by which it regulates myocardial function remain incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to determine how CHF1/Hey2 affects development of heart failure through examination of contractility in a myocardial knockout mouse model. We generated myocardial-specific knockout mice. At baseline, cardiac function was normal, but, after aortic banding, the conditional knockout mice demonstrated a greater increase in ventricular weight-to-body weight ratio compared with control mice (5.526 vs. 4.664 mg/g) and a significantly decreased ejection fraction (47.8 vs. 72.0% control). Isolated cardiac myocytes from these mice showed decreased calcium transients and fractional shortening after electrical stimulation. To determine the molecular basis for these alterations in excitation-contraction coupling, we first measured total sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium stores and calcium-dependent force generation in isolated muscle fibers, which were normal, suggesting a defect in calcium cycling. Analysis of gene expression demonstrated normal expression of most genes known to be involved in myocardial calcium cycling, with the exception of the ryanodine receptor binding protein FKBP12.6, which was expressed at increased levels in the conditional knockout hearts. Treatment of the isolated knockout myocytes with FK506, which inhibits the association of FKBP12.6 with the ryanodine receptor, restored contractile function. These findings demonstrate that conditional deletion of CHF1/Hey2 in the myocardium leads to abnormalities in calcium handling mediated by FKBP12.6 that predispose to pressure overload-induced heart failure.
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ABSTRACT: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurs more often in patients with ECG left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. However, whether LV hypertrophy regression is associated with a reduced risk of SCD remains unclear. The Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study included 9193 patients 55 to 80 years of age with essential hypertension and ECG LV hypertrophy by gender-adjusted Cornell product (CP) (RaVL+SV(3) [+6 mm in women]). QRS duration>2440 mm x ms) and/or Sokolow-Lyon voltage (SLV) (SV1+RV(5/6)>38 mm). During follow-up (mean, 4.8 years), 190 patients (2%) experienced SCD. In time-dependent Cox analyses, absence of in-treatment LV hypertrophy was associated with a decreased risk of SCD: every 1-SD-lower in-treatment CP (1050 mm x ms) was associated with a 28% lower risk of SCD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.79) and 1-SD-lower SLV (10.5 mm) with a 26% lower risk (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.84). After adjustment for time-varying systolic and diastolic blood pressures, treatment allocation, age, gender, baseline Framingham risk score, ECG strain, heart rate, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, smoking, diabetes, congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, and occurrence of myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and noncardiovascular death, both in-treatment CP and SLV remained predictive of SCD: each 1-SD-lower CP was associated with a 19% lower risk of SCD (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.90) and 1-SD-lower SLV with an 18% lower risk (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.98). Absence of in-treatment LV hypertrophy by both SLV and CP was associated with a 30% lower risk of SCD (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.92). Absence of in-treatment ECG LV hypertrophy is associated with reduced risk of SCD independently of treatment modality, blood pressure reduction, prevalent coronary heart disease, and other cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive patients with LV hypertrophy.Circulation 08/2007; 116(7):700-5. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increased rates of glucose uptake and glycolysis have been repeatedly observed in cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Although these changes have been considered part of the fetal gene reactivation program, the functional significance of increased glucose utilization in hypertrophied and failing myocardium is poorly understood. We generated transgenic (TG) mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of insulin-independent glucose transporter GLUT1 to recapitulate the increases in basal glucose uptake rate observed in hypertrophied hearts. Isolated perfused TG hearts showed a greater rate of basal glucose uptake and glycolysis than hearts isolated from wild-type littermates, which persisted after pressure overload by ascending aortic constriction (AAC). The in vivo cardiac function in TG mice, assessed by echocardiography, was unaltered. When subjected to AAC, wild-type mice exhibited a progressive decline in left ventricular (LV) fractional shortening accompanied by ventricular dilation and decreased phosphocreatine to ATP ratio and reached a mortality rate of 40% at 8 weeks. In contrast, TG-AAC mice maintained LV function and phosphocreatine to ATP ratio and had <10% mortality. We found that increasing insulin-independent glucose uptake and glycolysis in adult hearts does not compromise cardiac function. Furthermore, we demonstrate that increasing glucose utilization in hypertrophied hearts protects against contractile dysfunction and LV dilation after chronic pressure overload.Circulation 10/2002; 106(16):2125-31. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a conserved adaptive reaction that increases cell survival under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions. X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1) is a key transcriptional regulator of the UPR that activates genes involved in protein folding, secretion, and degradation to restore ER function. The occurrence of chronic ER stress has been extensively described in neurodegenerative conditions linked to protein misfolding and aggregation. However, the role of the UPR in the CNS has not been addressed directly. Here we describe the generation of a brain-specific XBP-1 conditional KO strain (XBP-1(Nes-/-)). XBP-1(Nes-/-) mice are viable and do not develop any spontaneous neurological dysfunction, although ER stress signaling in XBP-1(Nes-/-) primary neuronal cell cultures was impaired. To assess the function of XBP-1 in pathological conditions involving protein misfolding and ER stress, we infected XBP-1(Nes-/-) mice with murine prions. To our surprise, the activation of stress responses triggered by prion replication was not influenced by XBP-1 deficiency. Neither prion aggregation, neuronal loss, nor animal survival was affected. Hence, this most highly conserved arm of the UPR may not contribute to the occurrence or pathology of neurodegenerative conditions associated with prion protein misfolding despite predictions that such diseases are related to ER stress and irreversible neuronal damage.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2008; 105(2):757-62. · 9.74 Impact Factor