Article

Cognitive impairment in late life schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder

Department of Psychiatry, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. .
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 3.09). 01/2013; 28(1). DOI: 10.1002/gps.3793
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Evidence in younger populations suggests quantitative but not categorical differences in cognitive impairments between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. It is uncertain whether a similar distinction applies to patients in later life. METHODS: We compared the cognitive abilities of older, community-living schizophrenia patients, controlling for their state of symptomatic remission, with those of older euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder. The study included 67 patients with schizophrenia (20 in symptomatic remission, 47 not in symptomatic remission; mean age 68 years) and 74 euthymic bipolar I patients (mean age 70 years), who were compared using analysis of covariance on clinical and neuropsychological variables (e.g., attention/working memory, verbal memory, executive function and verbal fluency) and contrasted with 69 healthy controls. RESULTS: Remitted (SR) and non-remitted (SN) schizophrenia patients and bipolar I (BP) patients were impaired relative to healthy controls, with mostly large effect sizes for verbal memory (Cohen's d: SR 1.34, SN 1.48, BP 1.09), executive function (Cohen's d: SR 0.87, SN 1.29, BP 0.71) and verbal fluency (Cohen's d: SR 1.09, SN 1.25, BP 0.88), but smaller effect sizes for the domain of attention/working memory (Cohen's d: SR 0.26, SN 0.18, BP 0.52). Differences in cognitive performance between the remitted schizophrenia patients and the bipolar I patients were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: In both older patients with schizophrenia and with bipolar disorder, serious and pervasive cognitive deficits can be demonstrated. Trait-related cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may share major phenotypic similarity in later life. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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    • "Although non-remitted FEP patients also showed poorer visual memory compared to remitted patients at initial assessment, this deficit does not appear to be stable over the follow-up period. Differences in verbal memory have not been previously reported in studies using the RSGW remission definition , whether it was in chronic schizophrenia (Helldin et al., 2006; Ciudad et al., 2009; Eberhard et al., 2009; Li et al., 2010; Brissos et al., 2011; Hofer et al., 2011; Meesters et al., 2011; Yun da et al., 2011; Meesters et al., 2013) or in a first-episode sample (Bodnar et al., 2008; Bodnar et al., 2011). Some studies have found associations between visual memory and symptoms severity (Hoff et al., 1999; Verdoux et al., 2002; Dominguez Mde et al., 2009; August et al., 2012); however, this may not entirely explain our results since the symptom levels at baseline in our two groups were not statistically different. "
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