Cognitive impairment in late life schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder.

GGZ inGeest, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. .
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 2.98). 03/2012; DOI:10.1002/gps.3793
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Evidence in younger populations suggests quantitative but not categorical differences in cognitive impairments between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. It is uncertain whether a similar distinction applies to patients in later life. METHODS: We compared the cognitive abilities of older, community-living schizophrenia patients, controlling for their state of symptomatic remission, with those of older euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder. The study included 67 patients with schizophrenia (20 in symptomatic remission, 47 not in symptomatic remission; mean age 68 years) and 74 euthymic bipolar I patients (mean age 70 years), who were compared using analysis of covariance on clinical and neuropsychological variables (e.g., attention/working memory, verbal memory, executive function and verbal fluency) and contrasted with 69 healthy controls. RESULTS: Remitted (SR) and non-remitted (SN) schizophrenia patients and bipolar I (BP) patients were impaired relative to healthy controls, with mostly large effect sizes for verbal memory (Cohen's d: SR 1.34, SN 1.48, BP 1.09), executive function (Cohen's d: SR 0.87, SN 1.29, BP 0.71) and verbal fluency (Cohen's d: SR 1.09, SN 1.25, BP 0.88), but smaller effect sizes for the domain of attention/working memory (Cohen's d: SR 0.26, SN 0.18, BP 0.52). Differences in cognitive performance between the remitted schizophrenia patients and the bipolar I patients were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: In both older patients with schizophrenia and with bipolar disorder, serious and pervasive cognitive deficits can be demonstrated. Trait-related cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may share major phenotypic similarity in later life. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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    ABSTRACT: With the introduction of a clear definition of symptomatic remission from the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group (RSWG), studies have sought to characterize cognitive functioning in remitted and non-remitted schizophrenia patients. However, most investigations of cognition and remission are cross-sectional or have studied samples of chronically ill patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare cognitive performance between remitted and non-remitted first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients longitudinally. Seventy patients were categorized as remitted (n = 17) or non-remitted (n = 53) using the full RSWG criteria after being treated for approximately 15 months, during which cognition was evaluated twice. Since our previous investigations in FEP have isolated verbal memory as a potential cognitive marker of symptomatic remission, analyses were limited to verbal, visual and working memory. We have found that non-remitted patients had a significantly worse verbal memory performance than remitted patients after 3 months (F(1,68) = 6.47, p = 0.006) and 15 months of treatment (F(1,68) = 19.49, p < 0.001). Visual memory was also significantly lower in non-remitted patients compared to those in remission but only at initial assessment (F(1,68) = 8.21, p = 0.003) while working memory performance was similar at both time points. Our findings suggest that verbal memory may be a specific and stable marker of clinical remission in FEP patients. This cognitive domain can easily be evaluated at treatment intake in the hope of identifying early on patients who are less likely to remit.
    Schizophrenia Research 01/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: A sizeable body of work has consistently documented that a number of euthymic mixed-age bipolar disorder subjects exhibit prominent impairments in a variety of cognitive domains. By contrast, knowledge about neuropsychological functioning in elderly patients is scant, despite being necessary for the adequate treatment of this population and the understanding of illness evolution. The aim of this study was to combine findings from the available literature in order to examine the pattern and extent of cognitive deficits in euthymic late-life bipolar disorder subjects. METHODS: A literature search was conducted through the online databases PubMed, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, and Wiley-Blackwell, covering the period between January 1990 and April 2012. Effect sizes reflecting patient-control differences for 10 cognitive variables were extracted from selected investigations and combined by means of meta-analytical procedures. RESULTS: No significant patient-control differences were found for global cognitive status as assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing Test. Significant overall effect sizes (Hedges' g) of between 0.61 and 0.88 were noted for sustained attention, digit span (forwards and backwards), delayed recall, serial learning, cognitive flexibility, and verbal fluency (phonemic and categorical). CONCLUSIONS: The extent of cognitive dysfunction in euthymic late-life bipolar disorder subjects may be, on average, similar to that reported for remitted young adult patients. Larger effect sizes of impairment may be associated with late illness onset. Implications and future directions for research are proposed.
    Bipolar Disorders 05/2013; · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy 07/2013;


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Aug 18, 2013