S-adenosyl methionine regulates ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 protein expression and sumoylation in murine liver and human cancers.
ABSTRACT Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (Ubc9) is required for sumoylation and is overexpressed in several malignancies, but its expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown. Hepatic S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe) levels decrease in methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (Mat1a) knockout (KO) mice, which develop HCC, and in ethanol-fed mice. We examined the regulation of Ubc9 by SAMe in murine liver and human HCC, breast, and colon carcinoma cell lines and specimens. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting measured gene and protein expression, respectively. Immunoprecipitation followed by western blotting examined protein-protein interactions. Ubc9 expression increased in HCC and when hepatic SAMe levels decreased. SAMe treatment in Mat1a KO mice reduced Ubc9 protein, but not messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, and lowered sumoylation. Similarly, treatment of liver cancer cell lines HepG2 and Huh7, colon cancer cell line RKO, and breast cancer cell line MCF-7 with SAMe or its metabolite 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) reduced only Ubc9 protein level. Ubc9 posttranslational regulation is unknown. Ubc9 sequence predicted a possible phosphorylation site by cell division cycle 2 (Cdc2), which directly phosphorylated recombinant Ubc9. Mat1a KO mice had higher phosphorylated (phospho)-Ubc9 levels, which normalized after SAMe treatment. SAMe and MTA treatment lowered Cdc2 mRNA and protein levels, as well as phospho-Ubc9 and protein sumoylation in liver, colon, and breast cancer cells. Serine 71 of Ubc9 was required for phosphorylation, interaction with Cdc2, and protein stability. Cdc2, Ubc9, and phospho-Ubc9 levels increased in human liver, breast, and colon cancers. CONCLUSION: Cdc2 expression is increased and Ubc9 is hyperphosphorylated in several cancers, and this represents a novel mechanism to maintain high Ubc9 protein expression that can be inhibited by SAMe and MTA.
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ABSTRACT: S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) and its metabolite 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) are proapoptotic in HepG2 cells. In microarray studies, we found SAMe treatment induced Bcl-x expression. Bcl-x is alternatively spliced to produce two distinct mRNAs and proteins, Bcl-x(L) and Bcl-x(S). Bcl-x(L) is antiapoptotic, while Bcl-x(S) is proapoptotic. In this study we showed that SAMe and MTA selectively induced Bcl-x(S) in a time- and dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells. There are three transcription start sites in the human Bcl-x gene which yield only Bcl-x(L) in control HepG2 cells. SAMe and MTA treatment did not affect promoter usage, but while one promoter yielded only Bcl-x(L), the other two yielded both Bcl-x(L) and Bcl-x(S), with Bcl-x(S) as the predominant messenger RNA (mRNA) species. Trichostatin A, 3-deaza-adenosine, cycloleucine, and okadaic acid had no effect on Bcl-x(S) induction by SAMe or MTA. Calyculin A and tautomycin, on the other hand, blocked SAMe and MTA-mediated Bcl-x(S) induction and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. SAMe and MTA increased protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) catalytic subunit mRNA and protein levels and dephosphorylation of serine-arginine proteins, with the latter blocked by calyculin A. The effects of SAMe and MTA on Bcl-x(S), PP1 expression, and apoptosis were also seen in 293 cells, but not in primary hepatocytes. Induction of Bcl-x(S) by ceramide in HepG2 cells also resulted in apoptosis. In conclusion, we have uncovered a highly novel action of SAMe and MTA, namely the ability to affect the cellular phosphorylation state and alternative splicing of genes, in this case resulting in the induction of Bcl-x(S) leading to apoptosis.Hepatology 08/2004; 40(1):221-31. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chemoprevention of liver carcinogenesis by S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) was studied in F344 male rats. The rats were given 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (1,2-DMH) 2 HCl (100 mg/kg, i.p.) 18 h after two-thirds hepatectomy. One week later they were fed a semisynthetic basal diet containing 1% orotic acid (OA) for 29 weeks. At this time the rats were transferred to the basal semisynthetic diet and were killed 3 weeks later. SAM treatment (384 mumol/kg/day, i.m.), was started 1 week after 1,2-DMH and was continued up to the end of the experiment. Controls received solvent alone. SAM exerted an inhibitory effect on the induction of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. For example, nodules with diameters of 1-2 and 2-6 mm exhibited a decrease in both incidence and number per liver, while no such inhibitory effect was seen in the category of larger nodules. Furthermore, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) also exhibited a decrease in the SAM-treated group. The number/liver and incidence were 0.04 and 4.8% respectively in the SAM-treated group, compared to 0.38 and 37.8% in the control group. Microscopic examination showed the presence of well-differentiated carcinomas and atypical nodules in control rats, while only one small, well-differentiated tumor and one nodule with patterns of initial transformation were seen in SAM-treated rats. No patchy staining of glutathione-S-transferase, indicative of remodeling, was observed in nodules of both SAM-treated and control rats. Nodules and HCCs developing in SAM-treated rats exhibited a relatively high number of apoptotic bodies. Apoptotic bodies count showed 2.8- and 1.8-fold increases in nodules and HCCs of SAM-treated rats with respect to controls. These results indicate that SAM exerts a chemopreventive effect on hepatocarcinogenesis induced by the OA model. SAM seems to be more effective in inhibiting nodule to HCC progression than on the growth of nodule per se. The inhibitory effect is associated with an increase in cell loss by apoptosis in nodules and HCC.Carcinogenesis 03/1995; 16(2):427-30. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genomic instability participates in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APEX1) participates in the base excision repair of premutagenic apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites. Mice deficient in methionine adenosyltransferase 1a (Mat1a KO) have chronic hepatic deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) and increased oxidative stress, and develop HCC. We examined livers of Mat1a KO mice for genomic instability and dysregulation of APEX1. Studies were conducted using Mat1a KO mice livers and cultured mouse and human hepatocytes. Genomic instability increased in the livers of 1-month-old Mat1a KO mice, compared with wild-type mice, whereas Apex1 mRNA and protein levels were reduced by 20% and 50%, respectively, in Mat1a KO mice of all ages. These changes correlated with increased numbers of AP sites and reduced expression of Bax, Fas, and p21 (all APEX targets). When human and mouse hepatocytes were placed in culture, transcription of MAT1A mRNA decreased whereas that of APEX1 and c-MYC increased. However, the protein levels of APEX1 decreased to 60% of baseline. Addition of 2 mmol/L SAMe prevented increases in APEX1 and c-MYC mRNA levels, as well as decreases in MAT1A expression and cytosolic and nuclear APEX1 protein levels. By 1 month of age, genomic instability increases in livers of Mat1a KO mice, possibly due to reduced APEX1 levels. Although SAMe inhibits APEX1 transcription, it stabilizes the APEX1 protein. This novel aspect of SAMe on APEX1 regulation might explain the chemopreventive action of SAMe and the reason that chronic SAMe deficiency predisposes to HCC.Gastroenterology 10/2008; 136(3):1025-36. · 12.82 Impact Factor