Dopamine, the kidney, and hypertension.
ABSTRACT There is increasing evidence that the intrarenal dopaminergic system plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure, and defects in dopamine signaling appear to be involved in the development of hypertension. Recent experimental models have definitively demonstrated that abnormalities in intrarenal dopamine production or receptor signaling can predispose to salt-sensitive hypertension and a dysregulated renin-angiotensin system. In addition, studies in both experimental animal models and in humans with salt-sensitive hypertension implicate abnormalities in dopamine receptor regulation due to receptor desensitization resulting from increased G-protein receptor kinase 4 (GRK4) activity. Functional polymorphisms that predispose to increased basal GRK4 activity both decrease dopamine receptor activity and increase angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor activity and are associated with essential hypertension in a number of different human cohorts.
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ABSTRACT: Kidneys play a vital role in long-term regulation of blood pressure. This is achieved by actions of many renal and non-renal factors acting on the kidney that help maintain body's water and electrolyte balance and thus control blood pressure. Several endogenously formed or circulating hormones/peptides by acting within the kidney regulate fluid and water homeostasis and blood pressure. Dopamine and angiotensin II are the two key renal factors that via acting on their receptors and counter-regulating each other's function, maintain water and sodium balance. In this review, we provide recent advances in the signaling cascades of these renal receptors, especially at the level of their cross talk, and discuss their roles in blood pressure regulation in the aging process.AJP Renal Physiology 10/2012; · 4.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: hRenalase may degrade catecholamines and regulate sympathetic tone and blood pressure (BP). The aim of the study was to assess dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and renalase in 75 hemodialysis (HD) and 26 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and their correlations with heart rate (HR), BP, a type of hypotensive therapy, and residual renal function. Methods: Renalase, DA, NE were studied using commercially available assays. Results: Renalase and NE were higher and DA was lower in dialyzed groups comparing to healthy volunteers. Hemodialysis patients had lower NE and higher renalase level. Norepinephrine was higher in anuric patients in HD group. Renalase correlated with dialysis vintage and inversely with residual diuresis. Dopamine correlated with residual diuresis in the whole study cohort, with HR in PD patients, with renalase in HD patients. Norepinephrine correlated with aortic diameter in PD patients. Norepinephrine was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in HD group. Hemodialysis population with CAD had lower NE and higher DA and renalase level than their PD counterparts. In the follow up, 27% of HD group died. Cardiac death was diagnosed in 17% and there was higher renalase level than in noncardiac death. Conclusions: Elevated level of circulating renalase in dialysis patients is rather related to kidney function and the sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity found in this population. The real excess of renalase in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease still remains to be proven. If confirmed, it may give a new way for pathophysiological therapy.Renal Failure 03/2013; · 0.94 Impact Factor