Dopamine, the kidney, and hypertension.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.
Current Hypertension Reports (Impact Factor: 3.74). 03/2012; 14(2):138-43. DOI:10.1007/s11906-012-0253-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is increasing evidence that the intrarenal dopaminergic system plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure, and defects in dopamine signaling appear to be involved in the development of hypertension. Recent experimental models have definitively demonstrated that abnormalities in intrarenal dopamine production or receptor signaling can predispose to salt-sensitive hypertension and a dysregulated renin-angiotensin system. In addition, studies in both experimental animal models and in humans with salt-sensitive hypertension implicate abnormalities in dopamine receptor regulation due to receptor desensitization resulting from increased G-protein receptor kinase 4 (GRK4) activity. Functional polymorphisms that predispose to increased basal GRK4 activity both decrease dopamine receptor activity and increase angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor activity and are associated with essential hypertension in a number of different human cohorts.

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    ABSTRACT: Kidneys play a vital role in long-term regulation of blood pressure. This is achieved by actions of many renal and non-renal factors acting on the kidney that help maintain body's water and electrolyte balance and thus control blood pressure. Several endogenously formed or circulating hormones/peptides by acting within the kidney regulate fluid and water homeostasis and blood pressure. Dopamine and angiotensin II are the two key renal factors that via acting on their receptors and counter-regulating each other's function, maintain water and sodium balance. In this review, we provide recent advances in the signaling cascades of these renal receptors, especially at the level of their cross talk, and discuss their roles in blood pressure regulation in the aging process.
    AJP Renal Physiology 10/2012; · 4.42 Impact Factor
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