Poultry and livestock exposure and cancer risk among farmers in the agricultural health study

Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Cancer Causes and Control (Impact Factor: 2.74). 03/2012; 23(5):663-70. DOI: 10.1007/s10552-012-9921-1
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study is to evaluate cancer risk associated with raising animals as commodities, which is associated with a variety of exposures, such as infectious agents and endotoxins.
Information was available for 49,884 male farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, who reported livestock and poultry production at enrollment (1993-1997). Cancer incidence data were obtained through annual linkage to state registries. Using Poisson regression analyses, we evaluated whether the number and type of animals raised on the farm impacted cancer risk.
Overall, 31,848 (63.8%) male farmers reported raising any animals. Lung cancer risk decreased with increasing number of livestock on the farm (p trend = 0.04) and with raising poultry (Relative Risk (RR) = 0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4-0.97). Raising poultry was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer (RR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.99-2.0) with further increased with larger flocks (p trend = 0.02). Risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma was also elevated in those who raised poultry (RR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.4), but there was no evidence of increased risk with larger flocks (p trend = 0.5). Raising sheep was associated with a significantly increased risk of multiple myeloma (RR = 4.9; 95% CI: 2.4-12.0). Performing veterinary services increased the risk of Hodgkin lymphoma (RR = 12.2; 95% CI: 1.6-96.3).
We observed an inverse association between raising poultry and livestock and lung cancer risk and some evidence of increased risk of specific lymphohematopoietic malignancies with specific types of animals and performing veterinary services. Further research into associations between raising animals and cancer risk should focus on identification of etiologic agents.

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Available from: Laura Beane Freeman, Oct 03, 2015
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    • "Muscle and bone injuries caused by carrying, lifting, and pulling heavy objects, as well as chronic musculoskeletal pain, are frequently reported in agriculture and animal husbandry workers [12, 13]. In the United States, a significant relationship was demonstrated between the incidence of lung and lymphohematopoietic cancers and raising poultry and cattle [14]. It has also been reported that compared to individuals in other occupations, individuals working in agriculture are more predisposed to developing occupational diseases, such as asthma and respiratory ailments caused by chemicals, dust, and allergens [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Individuals who make a living through agriculture and animal husbandry are faced with a variety of physical and psychological health risks. In many international studies, it has been shown that these risks can result in disease. The purpose of this study is to summarize the health risks faced by Turkish agricultural workers. Materials and methods: This study used a nonrandom, convenience sample. The biopsychosocial health statuses of 177 farmers from 11 central villages in Kars, Turkey, were examined. Results: It was determined that the depression rate among the study group was 62.1%, the rate of physical health problems was 52.0%, and the rate of social isolation was 53.7%. There was a statistically significant difference between the depression scale scores and lower education levels, having ≥ three children, and physical health problems, as well as the physical condition of the farmers' homes. There was a significant difference between poor physical health and older age, lower education levels, having ≥ three children, and social isolation. Conclusions: In providing data-based evidence, it is believed that this study will contribute considerably to understanding the causality of health problems in this population and in planning the development of public health and veterinary services based on regional needs.
    06/2014; 2014:185342. DOI:10.1155/2014/185342
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    • "However, some subsequently published literature provides conflicting evidence regarding the effect of endotoxin exposure on lung cancer. Reduced lung cancer risks continue to be observed in studies of UK cotton textile (McElvenny et al, 2011) and US agricultural cohorts (Beane Freeman et al, 2012), whereas moderately elevated risks associated with endotoxin *Correspondence: Professor H Checkoway; E-mail: Received 20 February 2014; revised 5 May 2014; accepted 11 May 2014; published online 12 June 2014 & 2014 Cancer Research UK. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) is a widespread contaminant in many environmental settings. Since the 1970s, there has been generally consistent evidence indicating reduced risks for lung cancer associated with occupational endotoxin exposure. Methods: We updated a case–cohort study nested within a cohort of 267 400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. We compared exposure histories of 1456 incident lung cancers cases diagnosed during 1989–2006 with those of a reference subcohort of 3022 workers who were free of lung cancer at the end of follow-up. We applied Cox proportional hazards modelling to estimate exposure–response trends, adjusted for age and smoking, for cumulative exposures lagged by 0, 10, and 20 years, and separately for time windows of ⩽15 and >15 years since first exposure. Results: We observed no associations between cumulative exposure and lung cancer, irrespective of lag interval. In contrast, analyses by exposure time windows revealed modestly elevated, but not statistically significant relative risks (∼1.27) at the highest three exposure quintiles for exposures that occurred >15 years since first exposure. Conclusions: The findings do not support a protective effect of endotoxin, but are suggestive of possible lung cancer promotion with increasing time since first exposure.
    British Journal of Cancer 06/2014; 111(3). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2014.308 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    • "Une cohorte finlandaise a confirmé des résultats antérieurs, notamment italiens 19—21, sur une protection spécifiquement attachée à l'agriculture de production laitière [22] : le risque réduit chez les producteurs laitiers a tendance à disparaître chez les fermiers qui se réorientent vers la production céréalière. Enfin, des résultats très récents issus de l'Agricultural Health Study et portant sur près de 50 000 fermiers de sexe masculin ont identifié une relation inverse entre le risque de CBP et la taille du cheptel bovins [23]. Cette dernière étude est aussi la première à mesurer une protection liée à l'élevage de volailles (RR :0,6, IC : 0,4—97). "
    Revue des Maladies Respiratoires 12/2013; 30(10):809–811. DOI:10.1016/j.rmr.2012.09.014 · 0.62 Impact Factor
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