BRCA1/2 mutations and expression: response to platinum chemotherapy in patients with advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer.
ABSTRACT Our objective was to determine the rate of BRCA1/2 deficiency in platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant tumors from a cohort of unselect patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOH).
BRCA1/2 mutation analysis was performed in 29 patients with platinum-sensitive EOC and 24 patients with platinum-resistant disease. Germline DNA was analyzed in mutation carriers when normal tissue was available. BRCA expression was ascertained by quantitative rt-PCR. Associations between BRCA mutation status and expression levels and parameters of platinum response were analyzed.
Fifteen of 53 (28.3%) EOC tumors had BRCA1/2 mutations. Twelve mutations were in BRCA1, while 3 involved BRCA2. Of the 12 mutation-carriers with normal tissue available for DNA analyses, 33.3% of the mutations were found to be somatic. Three mutations were novel. The majority of BRCA mutations (73%) were identified in patients with platinum-sensitive disease. In total, 38% of platinum-sensitive tumors were found to have a BRCA mutation, compared to 17% of the platinum-resistant patients. A statistical trend toward platinum-sensitive disease was seen in BRCA mutation carriers (p=0.079). Nineteen (36%) study patients had some form of BRCA deficiency, and these patients were less likely to have platinum-resistant tumors (OR=0.29; p value=0.048).
BRCA mutations occurred more frequently in platinum-sensitive EOC than platinum-resistant disease. The high overall frequency of BRCA deficiency in EOC underscores the importance of tumor profiling as therapies targeting the DNA repair pathway are being investigated.
- SourceAvailable from: Hiroshi Haeno[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Platinum drugs and PARP inhibitors ("PARPis") are considered to be effective in BRCA-associated cancers with impaired DNA repair. These agents cause stalled and collapsed replication forks and create double-strand breaks effectively in the absence of repair mechanisms, resulting in arrest of the cell cycle and induction of cell death. However, recent studies have shown failure of these chemotherapeutic agents due to emerging drug resistance. In this study, we developed a stochastic model of BRCA-associated cancer progression in which there are four cancer populations: those with (i) functional BRCA, (ii) dysfunctional BRCA, (iii) functional BRCA and a growth advantage, and (iv) dysfunctional BRCA and a growth advantage. These four cancer populations expand from one cancer cell with normal repair function until the total cell number reaches a detectable amount. We derived formulas for the probability and expected numbers of each population at the time of detection. Furthermore, we extended the model to consider the tumor dynamics during treatment. Results from the model were validated and showed good agreement with clinical and experimental evidence in BRCA-associated cancers. Based on the model, we investigated conditions in which drug resistance during the treatment course originated from either a pre-existing drug-resistant population or a de novo population, due to secondary mutations. Finally, we found that platinum drugs and PARPis were effective if (i) BRCA inactivation is present, (ii) the cancer was diagnosed early, and (iii) tumor growth is rapid. Our results indicate that different types of cancers have a preferential way of acquiring resistance to platinum drugs and PARPis according to their growth and mutational characteristics.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105724. · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Maintenance monotherapy with the PARP inhibitor olaparib significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) versus placebo in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent serous ovarian cancer. We aimed to explore the hypothesis that olaparib is most likely to benefit patients with a BRCA mutation.The Lancet Oncology 05/2014; · 25.12 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The role of BRCA dysfunction on the prognosis of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOCs) remains controversial. This systematic review tried to assess the role of BRCA dysfunction, including BRCA1/2 germline, somatic mutations, low BRCA1 protein/mRNA expression or BRCA1 promoter methylation, as prognostic factor in EOCs. Studies were selected for analysis if they provided an independent assessment of BRCA status and prognosis in EOC. To make it possible to aggregate survival results of the published studies, their methodology was assessed using a modified quality scale. Of 35 evaluable studies, 23 identified BRCA dysfucntion status as a favourable prognostic factor. No significant differences were detected in the global score of quality assessment. The aggregated hazard ratio (HR) of overall survival (OS) of 34 evaluable studies suggested that BRCA dysfunction status had a favourable impact on OS (HR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.61-0.79), and when these studies were categorised into BRCA1/2 mutation and low protein/mRNA expression of BRCA1 subgroups, all of them demonstrated positive results (HR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.57-0.78; HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.51-0.75; and HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.33-0.78, respectively), except for the subgroup of BRCA1 promoter methylation (HR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.72-3.50). The meta-analysis of progression-free survival (PFS), which included 18 evaluable studies, demonstrated that BRCA dysfunction status was associated with a longer PFS in EOC (HR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.63-0.76). Patients with BRCA dysfunction status tend to have a better outcome, but further prospective clinical studies comparing the different BRCA statuses in EOC is urgently needed to specifically define the most effective treatment for the separate patient groups.PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e95285. · 3.53 Impact Factor