Intrapatient and interpatient pharmacokinetic variability of raltegravir in the clinical setting.

Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Therapeutic drug monitoring (Impact Factor: 2.43). 03/2012; 34(2):232-5. DOI: 10.1097/FTD.0b013e31824aa50a
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Raltegravir (RAL) is the first in class integrase inhibitor and is licensed for administration at 400 mg twice daily. RAL pharmacokinetics are characterized by high interpatient variability and recently RAL plasma exposure has been correlated with efficacy. RAL is primarily metabolized by glucuronidation via uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and UGT1A1*28 considered to be the main genetic variant associated with decreased UGT1A1 expression. This study investigated variability in RAL trough plasma concentrations (Ctrough) in the clinical setting, the effect of UGT1A1*28 and concomitant antiretrovirals.
A total of 86 patients, from Turin, Italy, and Madrid, Spain, were included in the analysis. Blood samples were obtained 10-14 hours postdose. Genotyping for UGT1A1*28 was conducted by sequencing.
High interpatient and intrapatient variabilities were observed; 13 patients had ≥3 samples available, and the median coefficient of variation was 128 (64-265). Coadministration of RAL with atazanavir (ATV, n = 9) resulted in higher raltegravir Ctrough, 517 (307-2706) ng/mL when compared with patients not receiving ATV (n = 77) 223 (95-552; P = 0.02). UGT1A1*28 did not influence RAL plasma exposure.
We have documented large intersubject and intrasubject variabilities in RAL plasma concentrations and confirmed the interaction with ATV. Further studies are required to better understand the mechanisms that influence the pharmacokinetics of RAL.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) catalyze the biotransformation of many endobiotics and xenobiotics, and are coded by polymorphic genes. However, knowledge about the effects of these polymorphisms is rarely used for the individualization of drug therapy. Here, we present a quantitative systematic review of clinical studies on the impact of UGT variants on drug metabolism to clarify the potential for genotype-adjusted therapy recommendations. Data on UGT polymorphisms and dose-related pharmacokinetic parameters in man were retrieved by a systematic search in public databases. Mean estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters were extracted for each group of carriers of UGT variants to assess their effect size. Pooled estimates and relative confidence bounds were computed with a random-effects meta-analytic approach whenever multiple studies on the same variant, ethnic group, and substrate were available. Information was retrieved on 30 polymorphic metabolic pathways involving 10 UGT enzymes. For irinotecan and mycophenolic acid a wealth of data was available for assessing the impact of genetic polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics under different dosages, between ethnicities, under comedication, and under toxicity. Evidence for effects of potential clinical relevance exists for 19 drugs, but the data are not sufficient to assess effect size with the precision required to issue dose recommendations. In conclusion, compared to other drug metabolizing enzymes much less systematic research has been conducted on the polymorphisms of UGT enzymes. However, there is evidence of the existence of large monogenetic functional polymorphisms affecting pharmacokinetics and suggesting a potential use of UGT polymorphisms for the individualization of drug therapy.
    Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 09/2013; · 7.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent clinical data have suggested high raltegravir concentrations in gut tissue after oral administration, with implications for treatment and prevention. We have used in silico, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models to further investigate the accumulation of raltegravir in gut tissue.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 08/2014; · 5.44 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Latent tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis disease are prevalent worldwide. However, antimycobacterial rifamycins have drug interactions with many antiretroviral drugs. We evaluated the effect of rifapentine on the pharmacokinetic properties of raltegravir. In this open-label, fixed-sequence, three-period study, 21 healthy volunteers were given: raltegravir alone (400 mg every 12 h for 4 days) on days 1-4 of Period 1; rifapentine (900 mg once weekly for 3 weeks) on days 1, 8 and 15 of Period 2 and raltegravir (400 mg every 12 h for 4 days) on days 12-15 of Period 2; and rifapentine (600 mg once daily for 10 scheduled doses) on days 1, 4-8 and 11-14 of Period 3 and raltegravir (400 mg every 12 h for 4 days) on days 11-14 of Period 3. Plasma raltegravir concentrations were measured. database: NCT00809718. In 16 subjects who completed the study, coadministration of raltegravir with rifapentine (900 mg once weekly; Period 2) compared with raltegravir alone resulted in the geometric mean of the raltegravir AUC from 0 to 12 h (AUC0-12) being increased by 71%; the peak concentration increased by 89% and the trough concentration decreased by 12%. Coadministration of raltegravir with rifapentine in Period 3 did not change the geometric mean of the raltegravir AUC0-12 or the peak concentration, but it decreased the trough concentration by 41%. Raltegravir coadministered with rifapentine was generally well tolerated. The increased raltegravir exposure observed with once-weekly rifapentine was safe and tolerable. Once-weekly rifapentine can be used with raltegravir to treat latent tuberculosis infection in patients who are infected with HIV.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 12/2013; · 5.34 Impact Factor