Position paper on the management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension: Joint recommendations by the European Society of Hypertension, by the European Respiratory Society and by the members of European COST (COoperation in Scientific and Technological research) ACTION B26 on Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Department of Clinical Medicine and Prevention, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
Journal of Hypertension (Impact Factor: 4.22). 03/2012; 30(4):633-46. DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e328350e53b
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This article is aimed at addressing the current state of the art in epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic procedures and treatment options for appropriate management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in cardiovascular (particularly hypertensive) patients, as well as for the management of cardiovascular diseases (particularly arterial hypertension) in OSA patients. The present document is the result of the work done by a panel of experts participating in the European Union COST (COoperation in Scientific and Technological research) ACTION B26 on OSA, with the endorsement of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the European Society of Hypertension (ESH). These recommendations are particularly aimed at reminding cardiovascular experts to consider the occurrence of sleep-related breathing disorders in patients with high blood pressure. They are at the same time aimed at reminding respiration experts to consider the occurrence of hypertension in patients with respiratory problems at night.


Available from: Ruzena Tkacova, May 29, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report on an 83-year-old male with traumatic brain injury after syncope with a fall in the morning. He had a history of seizures, coronary artery disease and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). No medical cause for seizures and syncope was determined. During rehabilitation, the patient still complained of seizures, and also reported sleepiness and snoring. Sleep apnea diagnostics revealed obstructive sleep apnea (SA) with an apnea-hypopnoea index of 35/h, and sudden onset of tachycardia with variations of heart rate based on paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Additional tests showed nocturnal AF which spontaneously converted to sinus rhythm mid-morning with an arrest of 5 s (sick sinus syndrome) and seizures. A DDD-pacer was implanted and no further seizures occurred. SA therapy with nasal continuous positive airway pressure was refused by the patient. Our findings suggests that screening for SA may offer the possibility to reveal causes of syncope and may introduce additional therapeutic options as arrhythmia and SA often occur together which in turn might be responsible for trauma due to syncope episodes.
    World Journal of Cardiology (WJC) 03/2015; 7(3):161-6. DOI:10.4330/wjc.v7.i3.161 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American Society of Hypertension 02/2015; 9(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jash.2015.02.001 · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cushing's syndrome is associated with increased mortality, mainly due to cardiovascular complications, which are sustained by the common development of systemic arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrome, which partially persist after the disease remission. Cardiovascular diseases and hypertension associated with endogenous hypercortisolism reveal underexplored peculiarities. The use of exogenous corticosteroids also impacts on hypertension and cardiovascular system, especially after prolonged treatment. The mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension differ, whether glucocorticoid excess is acute or chronic, and the source endogenous or exogenous, introducing inconsistencies among published studies. The pleiotropic effects of glucocorticoids and the overlap of the several regulatory mechanisms controlling blood pressure suggest that a rigorous comparison of in-vivo and in-vitro studies is necessary to draw reliable conclusions. This review, developed during the first 'Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome' workshop held in Capri in 2012, evaluates the most important peculiarities of hypertension associated with CS, with a particular focus on its pathophysiology. A critical appraisal of most significant animal and human studies is compared with a systematic review of the few available clinical trials. A special attention is dedicated to the description of the clinical features and cardiovascular damage secondary to glucocorticoid excess. On the basis of the consensus reached during the workshop, a pathophysiology-oriented therapeutic algorithm has been developed and it could serve as a first attempt to rationalize the treatment of hypertension in Cushing's syndrome.
    Journal of Hypertension 11/2014; 33(1). DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000415 · 4.22 Impact Factor