Identification of a protein mediating respiratory supercomplex stability.
ABSTRACT The complexes of the electron transport chain associate into large macromolecular assemblies, which are believed to facilitate efficient electron flow. We have identified a conserved mitochondrial protein, named respiratory supercomplex factor 1 (Rcf1-Yml030w), that is required for the normal assembly of respiratory supercomplexes. We demonstrate that Rcf1 stably and independently associates with both Complex III and Complex IV of the electron transport chain. Deletion of the RCF1 gene caused impaired respiration, probably as a result of destabilization of respiratory supercomplexes. Consistent with the hypothetical function of these respiratory assemblies, loss of RCF1 caused elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage. Finally, we show that knockdown of HIG2A, a mammalian homolog of RCF1, causes impaired supercomplex formation. We suggest that Rcf1 is a member of an evolutionarily conserved protein family that acts to promote respiratory supercomplex assembly and activity.
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ABSTRACT: Aconitase is a member of a family of iron-sulfur-containing (de)hydratases whose activities are modulated in bacteria by superoxide radical (O2-.)-mediated inactivation and iron-dependent reactivation. The inactivation-reactivation of aconitase(s) in cultured mammalian cells was explored since these reactions may impact important and diverse aconitase functions in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Conditions which increase O2-. production including exposure to the redox-cycling agent phenazine methosulfate (PMS), inhibitors of mitochondrial ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase, or hyperoxia inactivated aconitase in mammalian cells. Overproduction of mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase protected aconitase from inactivation by PMS or inhibitors of ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase, but not from normobaric hyperoxia. Aconitase activity was reactivated (t1/2 of 12 +/- 3 min) upon removal of PMS. The iron chelator deferoxamine impaired reactivation and increased net inactivation of aconitase by O2-.. The ability of ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase-generated O2-. to inactivate aconitase in several cell types correlated with the fraction of the aconitase activity localized in mitochondria. Extracellular O2-. generated with xanthine oxidase did not affect aconitase activity nor did exogenous superoxide dismutase decrease aconitase inactivation by PMS. The results demonstrate a dynamic and cyclical O2-.-mediated inactivation and iron-dependent reactivation of the mammalian [4Fe-4S] aconitases under normal and stress conditions and provide further evidence for the membrane compartmentalization of O2-..Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/1995; 270(22):13399-405. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cells of organisms as diverse as bacteria and humans can enter stable, nonproliferating quiescent states. Quiescent cells of eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms can survive for long periods without nutrients. This alternative state of cells is still poorly understood, yet much benefit is to be gained by understanding it both scientifically and with reference to human health. Here, we review our knowledge of one "model" quiescent cell population, in cultures of yeast grown to stationary phase in rich media. We outline the importance of understanding quiescence, summarize the properties of quiescent yeast cells, and clarify some definitions of the state. We propose that the processes by which a cell enters into, maintains viability in, and exits from quiescence are best viewed as an environmentally triggered cycle: the cell quiescence cycle. We synthesize what is known about the mechanisms by which yeast cells enter into quiescence, including the possible roles of the protein kinase A, TOR, protein kinase C, and Snf1p pathways. We also discuss selected mechanisms by which quiescent cells maintain viability, including metabolism, protein modification, and redox homeostasis. Finally, we outline what is known about the process by which cells exit from quiescence when nutrients again become available.Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 07/2004; 68(2):187-206. · 13.02 Impact Factor