Peptides from second extracellular loop of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) inhibit diverse strains of HIV-1
ABSTRACT To initiate HIV entry, the HIV envelope protein gp120 must engage its primary receptor CD4 and a coreceptor CCR5 or CXCR4. In the absence of a high resolution structure of a gp120-coreceptor complex, biochemical studies of CCR5 have revealed the importance of its N terminus and second extracellular loop (ECL2) in binding gp120 and mediating viral entry. Using a panel of synthetic CCR5 ECL2-derived peptides, we show that the C-terminal portion of ECL2 (2C, comprising amino acids Cys-178 to Lys-191) inhibit HIV-1 entry of both CCR5- and CXCR4-using isolates at low micromolar concentrations. In functional viral assays, these peptides inhibited HIV-1 entry in a CD4-independent manner. Neutralization assays designed to measure the effects of CCR5 ECL2 peptides when combined with either with the small molecule CD4 mimetic NBD-556, soluble CD4, or the CCR5 N terminus showed additive inhibition for each, indicating that ECL2 binds gp120 at a site distinct from that of N terminus and acts independently of CD4. Using saturation transfer difference NMR, we determined the region of CCR5 ECL2 used for binding gp120, showed that it can bind to gp120 from both R5 and X4 isolates, and demonstrated that the peptide interacts with a CD4-gp120 complex in a similar manner as to gp120 alone. As the CCR5 N terminus-gp120 interactions are dependent on CD4 activation, our data suggest that gp120 has separate binding sites for the CCR5 N terminus and ECL2, the ECL2 binding site is present prior to CD4 engagement, and it is conserved across CCR5- and CXCR4-using strains. These peptides may serve as a starting point for the design of inhibitors with broad spectrum anti-HIV activity.
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ABSTRACT: The chemokine receptor CXCR4 interacts with a single endogenous chemokine, CXCL12, and regulates a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes including inflammation and metastasis development. CXCR4 also binds the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, resulting in viral entry into host cells. Therefore, CXCR4 and its ligands represent valuable drug targets. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory properties of synthetic peptides derived from CXCR4 extracellular loops (ECL1-X4, ECL2-X4 and ECL3-X4) towards HIV-1 infection and CXCL12-mediated receptor activation. Among these peptides, ECL1-X4 displayed anti-HIV-1 activity against X4, R5/X4 and R5 viruses (IC50=24 to 76μM) in cell viability assay without impairing physiological CXCR4-CXCL12 signalling. In contrast, ECL2-X4 only inhibited X4 and R5/X4 strains, interfering with HIV-entry into cells. At the same time, ECL2-X4 strongly and specifically interacted with CXCL12, blocking its binding to CXCR4 and its second receptor, CXCR7 (IC50=20 and 100μM). Further analysis using mutated and truncated peptides showed that ECL2 of CXCR4 forms multiple contacts with the gp120 protein and the N-terminus of CXCL12. Chemokine neutralisation was mainly driven by four aspartates and the C-terminal residues of ECL2-X4. These results demonstrate that ECL2 represents an important structural determinant in CXCR4 activation. We identified the putative site for the binding of CXCL12 N-terminus and provided new structural elements to explain the recognition of gp120 and dimeric CXCR4 ligands.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2014; 1843(5). DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2014.01.017 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although peptides are well recognised biological molecules in vivo, their selection from libraries is challenging because of relative low affinity whilst in linear conformation. We hypothesized that multiplexed peptides and DNA on the surface of beads would provide a platform for enhanced avidity and the selection of relevant peptides from a library (ORBIT bead display). Using human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) gp120 as a target, we identify peptides that inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro through blocking of protein:protein interaction with the co-receptor CCR5. The bead display approach has many potential applications for probing biological systems and for drug lead development.Scientific Reports 10/2013; 3:3030. DOI:10.1038/srep03030 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The envelope glycoprotein (Env) of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) mediates membrane fusion. To analyze the mechanism of HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion, it is desirable to determine the expression level of Env on the cell surface. However, the quantification of Env by immunological staining is often hampered by the diversity of HIV-1 Env and limited availability of universal antibodies that recognize different Envs with equal efficiency. To overcome this problem, here we linked a tag protein called HaloTag at the C-terminus of HIV-1 Env. To relocate HaloTag to the cell surface, we introduced a second membrane-spanning domain (MSD) between Env and HaloTag. The MSD of transmembrane protease serine 11D, a type II transmembrane protein, successfully relocated HaloTag to the cell surface. The surface level of Env can be estimated indirectly by staining HaloTag with a specific membrane-impermeable fluorescent ligand. This tagging did not compromise the fusogenicity of Env drastically. Furthermore, fusogenicity of Env was preserved even after the labeling with the ligands. We have also found that an additional foreign peptide or protein such as C34 or neutralizing single-chain variable fragment (scFv) can be linked to the C-terminus of the HaloTag protein. Using these constructs, we were able to determine the required length of C34 and critical residues of neutralizing scFv for blocking membrane fusion, respectively.PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e96790. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0096790 · 3.53 Impact Factor