Parent psychopathology and offspring mental disorders: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys
ABSTRACT Associations between specific parent and offspring mental disorders are likely to have been overestimated in studies that have failed to control for parent comorbidity.
To examine the associations of parent with respondent disorders.
Data come from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys (n = 51 507). Respondent disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and parent disorders with informant-based Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria interviews.
Although virtually all parent disorders examined (major depressive, generalised anxiety, panic, substance and antisocial behaviour disorders and suicidality) were significantly associated with offspring disorders in multivariate analyses, little specificity was found. Comorbid parent disorders had significant sub-additive associations with offspring disorders. Population-attributable risk proportions for parent disorders were 12.4% across all offspring disorders, generally higher in high- and upper-middle- than low-/lower-middle-income countries, and consistently higher for behaviour (11.0-19.9%) than other (7.1-14.0%) disorders.
Parent psychopathology is a robust non-specific predictor associated with a substantial proportion of offspring disorders.
- SourceAvailable from: Christopher P Salas-Wright[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Childhood exposure to parental suicidal behavior has been linked to a variety of adverse behavioral and health outcomes. However, relatively little is known about the degree to which such exposure may place individuals at risk for a substance use disorder (SUD). Employing data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we compared the prevalence of SUDs among those who experienced childhood exposure to parental suicide attempts. Childhood exposure to parental suicide attempts was not associated with increased risk for the development of alcohol, cannabis, or cocaine use disorders. However, individuals who were exposed to aparental suicide attempt as children were significantly more likely to have met criteria for stimulant (AOR=1.40, 95% CI=1.18-1.67), sedative (AOR=1.24, 95% CI=1.04-1.47), tranquilizer (AOR=1.78, 95% CI=1.45-2.20), and opioid (AOR=1.41, 95% CI=1.19-1.67) use disorders in their lifetime. No significant gender differences were identified with respect to the magnitude of the relationship between exposure to parental suicide attempts and SUD risk among men and women. Findings suggest that, controlling for an array of sociodemographic, parental, mental health, and childhood adversity confounds, childhood exposure to parental suicide attempts is a vulnerability factor for low prevalence illicit drugs (i.e. stimulants, sedatives, tranquilizers, opioids), but not for more commonly used substances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Addictive Behaviors 03/2015; 46. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.03.008 · 2.44 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Little is known about the extent to which parental conflict and violence differentially impact on offspring mental health and substance use. Using data from a longitudinal birth cohort study this paper examines: whether offspring exposure to parental intimate partner violence (involving physical violence which may include conflicts and/or disagreements) or parental intimate partner conflict (conflicting interactions and disagreements only) are associated with offspring depression, anxiety and substance use in early adulthood (at age 21); and whether these associations are independent of maternal background, depression and anxiety and substance use. Data (n = 2,126 women and children) were taken from a large-scale Australian birth-cohort study, the Mater University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP). IPC and IPV were measured at the 14-year follow-up. Offspring mental health outcomes – depression, anxiety and substance use were assessed at the 21-year follow-up using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Offspring of women experiencing IPV at the 14-year follow-up were more likely to manifest anxiety, nicotine, alcohol and cannabis disorders by the 21-year follow-up. These associations remained after adjustment for maternal anxiety, depression, and other potential confounders. Unlike males who experience anxiety disorders after exposure to IPV, females experience depressive and alcohol use disorders. IPV predicts offspring increased levels of substance abuse and dependence in young adulthood. Gender differences suggest differential impact.Child Abuse & Neglect 07/2014; 38(12). DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.07.001 · 2.47 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Child maltreatment and substance abuse are both international public health priorities. Research shows that child maltreatment increases the risk for substance use and problems. Thus, recognition of this relationship may have important implications for substance demand reduction strategies, including efforts to prevent and treat substance use and related problems. Latin America and the Caribbean is a rich and diverse region of the world with a large range of social and cultural influences. To date, relatively little work has addressed the link between child maltreatment and substance use in the region. A working group constituted by the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in June, 2010 identified this area as a priority area for a multinational research partnership. This paper summarizes existing information on drug use and child maltreatment in six participating countries, Colombia, El Salvador, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama and Uruguay, and considers the implications of child maltreatment prevention for demand reduction strategies to address substance use issues. A CICAD/CAMH-sponsored multinational research partnership has been formed, which will involve research on the link between child maltreatment and substance misuse, expertise exchange and resource sharing. KeywordsChild maltreatment–Child abuse–Substance use–Substance abuse–University students–Latin America–Caribbean–Research partnershipInternational Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 08/2011; 9(4):347-364. DOI:10.1007/s11469-011-9347-0 · 0.95 Impact Factor