Two-stage hepatectomy: tape it and hang it, while you can.
ABSTRACT Two stage hepatectomy is currently a method of choice for the treatment of multifocal bilobar hepatic lesions, especially in the setting of hepatic metastases of colorectal malignancies. We describe a technique that facilitates second-stage hepatectomy by taping the major vascular structures of the right liver and performing a hanging maneuver during the first stage.
At the first-stage hepatectomy, the right hepatic artery and the right portal branch are dissected free and taped with color-coded silicone tapes. A classic hanging maneuver is performed using a silicone loop. These three loops are left in situ until the second-stage hepatectomy.
During the second-stage hepatectomy, the presence of the vascular tapes appears a major aid in the subsequent dissection and control of the major vascular structures, and the hanging loop helps parenchymal section and surgeon orientation, without liver mobilization. Six patients underwent this procedure. In one patient a biliary leak developed after the first-stage procedure, and this required reoperation for drainage. Although there is a risk of thrombosis in this setting, there were no vascular complications related to the tape positioning, nor was there any incidence of infection related to the use of the silicone tape.
The technique described here has been in regular use in our department since 2009, and in our experience, it may facilitate second-stage hepatectomy.
- SourceAvailable from: nih.gov[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The authors report on the surgical techniques and protocol for perioperative care that have yielded a zero hospital mortality rate in 110 consecutive patients undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The hepatectomy results are analyzed with the aim of further reducing the postoperative morbidity rate. In recent years, hepatectomy has been performed with a mortality rate of <10% in patients with HCC, but a zero hospital mortality rate in a large patient series has never been reported. At Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, the surgical techniques and perioperative management in hepatectomy for HCC have evolved yearly into a final standardized protocol that reduced the hospital mortality rate from 28% in 1989 to 0% in 1996 and 1997. Surgical techniques were designed to reduce intraoperative blood loss, blood transfusion, and ischemic injury to the liver remnant in hepatectomy. Postoperative care was focused on preservation and promotion of liver function by providing adequate tissue oxygenation and immediate postoperative nutritional support that consisted of branched-chain amino acid-enriched solution, low-dose dextrose, medium-chain triglycerides, and phosphate. The pre-, intra-, and postoperative data were collected prospectively and analyzed each year to assess the influence of the evolving surgical techniques and perioperative care on outcome. Of 330 patients undergoing hepatectomy for HCC, underlying cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis were present in 161 (49%) and 108 (33%) patients, respectively. There were no significant changes in the patient characteristics throughout the 9-year period, but there were significant reductions in intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements. From 1994 to 1997, the median blood transfusion requirement was 0 ml, and 64% of the patients did not require a blood transfusion. The postoperative morbidity rate remained the same throughout the study period. Complications in the patients operated on during 1996 and 1997 were primarily wound infections; the potentially fatal complications seen in the early years, such as subphrenic sepsis, biliary leakage, and hepatic coma, were absent. By univariate analysis, the volume of blood loss, volume of blood transfusions, and operation time were correlated positively with postoperative morbidity rates in 1996 and 1997. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that the operation time was the only parameter that correlated significantly with the postoperative morbidity rate. With appropriate surgical techniques and perioperative management to preserve function of the liver remnant, hepatectomy for HCC can be performed without hospital deaths. To improve surgical outcome further, strategies to reduce the operation time are being investigated.Annals of Surgery 04/1999; 229(3):322-30. · 6.33 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hemorrhage and transfusions remain the main causes of mortality and morbidity from liver resection. In cases of extended resection, especially performed on diseased liver, ischemia-reperfusion injury related to pedicle clamping may be a significant risk factor of postoperative liver dysfunction. The ideal alternative would be to perform major hepatectomy without clamping and without significant bleeding. This prospective study aimed to reconsider the risk of major hepatectomy performed without pedicle clamping and under low venous pressure in the light of modern surgical tools. Inclusion criteria were adults requiring a resection of more than three segments on healthy or pathologic livers but not on preoperative documented cirrhosis. Fifty patients, with a mean age of 53 +/- 15 years were included. Twenty-two patients had underlying liver disease. The main indications were colorectal metastases, primary liver tumors, and living donation. Twenty-six right hepatectomies, 17 extended right hepatectomies, and 7 extended left hepatectomies were performed. Unclamping method was successful in 96% of patients on an intention-to-treat basis. Seventy-four percent of patients were not transfused and no patients died. Surgical complication rate was 16% but no complication led to reoperation. Medical complication rate was 20%, including three transient liver dysfunctions. Major hepatectomy without clamping can be performed safely. The low rate of postoperative liver dysfunction, especially in cases of underlying liver disease, suggests good preservation of the small and diseased remnant liver.Journal of the American College of Surgeons 12/2004; 199(5):702-8. · 4.50 Impact Factor
- Journal of the American College of Surgeons 08/2001; 193(1):109-11. · 4.50 Impact Factor