Similar prediction of decreased total mortality, diabetes incidence or cardiovascular events using relative- and absolute-component Mediterranean diet score: The SUN cohort.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND AIM: Accumulated evidence supports the effectiveness of Mediterranean-type diets (MeDiet) in reducing mortality and preventing several chronic diseases. Widely used scores to assess adherence to MeDiet are based on specific sample characteristics; alternatively, they might be built according to absolute/normative cut-off points for the consumption of specific food groups (pre-defined servings/day or/week). The aim of this study was to compare sample-specific MeDiet adherence scores (MDS) versus absolute-normative scores (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener - MEDAS) on their association with macronutrient intake, total mortality and incidence of chronic diseases. Design: SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) dynamic prospective cohort study (60.5% women; mean age 38.4 years). METHODS AND RESULTS: In cross-sectional analyses (n=20,155) we evaluated macronutrient distribution according to MDS (based on 136-item FFQ), MEDAS (based on 13 questions), and variants of both. In prospective analyses (n=9109; mean follow-up: 6.2 years), we evaluated disease incidence or mortality. Adherence to MeDiet increased with age and, as expected, was associated with higher fiber intake, lower total fat intake but higher monounsaturated/saturated fat ratio, using all scores. Among subjects initially free of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), adherence to MeDiet appraised with an absolute-normative score (MEDAS) similarly predicted macronutrient distribution and disease incidence or mortality (diabetes incidence, CVD or all-cause mortality), when compared to a sample-specific score based on 136-item FFQ (MDS). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to MeDiet was associated with a decreased incidence of a composite outcome including diabetes incidence, cardiovascular events incidence or all-cause mortality.
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ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative diseases, a complex of diseases that ranges from cognitive decline, dementia, to Alzheimer’s disease represent, to date, a public health priority all over the world. Recently, an increasing interest for a possible relationship between diet and cognitive health has been reported. Several models of diet have been proposed but, until now, the highest attention of researchers, clinicians, and institutions has been focused on the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean diet is a model of diet characterized by a high consumption of complex carbohydrates, fruit and vegetables, legumes, with olive oil as the principal source of fats. Mediterranean diet has been extensively reported to be associated with a favorable health outcome and a better quality of life, but inconsistencies on the possible association with neurodegenerative diseases have been reported. The purpose of this review was to examine the most updated evidence of the beneficial effects of Mediterranean diet on the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases.Current Nutrition Reports. 2(2).
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes type-2 and the metabolic syndrome are prevalent in epidemic proportions and result in significant co-morbid disease. Limitations in understanding of dietary effects and cholesterol metabolism exist. Current methods to assess diabetes are essential, though many are invasive; for example, blood glucose and lipid monitoring require regular finger sticks and blood draws. A novel method to study these diseases may be non-invasive breath testing of exhaled compounds. Currently, acetone and lipid peroxidation products have been seen in small scale studies, though other compounds may be significant. As Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been proposed as a good model for human diabetes, applications of dietary manipulations and breath testing in this population may shed important light on how to design human clinical studies. In addition, ongoing studies indicate that breath testing in dolphins is feasible, humane, and yields relevant metabolites. By studying the metabolic and cholesterol responses of dolphins to dietary modifications, researchers may gain insight into human diabetes, improve the design of costly human clinical trials, and potentially discover biomarkers for non-invasive breath monitoring.Frontiers in Endocrinology 01/2013; 4:163.