Similar prediction of decreased total mortality, diabetes incidence or cardiovascular events using relative- and absolute-component Mediterranean diet score: The SUN cohort.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND AIM: Accumulated evidence supports the effectiveness of Mediterranean-type diets (MeDiet) in reducing mortality and preventing several chronic diseases. Widely used scores to assess adherence to MeDiet are based on specific sample characteristics; alternatively, they might be built according to absolute/normative cut-off points for the consumption of specific food groups (pre-defined servings/day or/week). The aim of this study was to compare sample-specific MeDiet adherence scores (MDS) versus absolute-normative scores (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener - MEDAS) on their association with macronutrient intake, total mortality and incidence of chronic diseases. Design: SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) dynamic prospective cohort study (60.5% women; mean age 38.4 years). METHODS AND RESULTS: In cross-sectional analyses (n=20,155) we evaluated macronutrient distribution according to MDS (based on 136-item FFQ), MEDAS (based on 13 questions), and variants of both. In prospective analyses (n=9109; mean follow-up: 6.2 years), we evaluated disease incidence or mortality. Adherence to MeDiet increased with age and, as expected, was associated with higher fiber intake, lower total fat intake but higher monounsaturated/saturated fat ratio, using all scores. Among subjects initially free of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), adherence to MeDiet appraised with an absolute-normative score (MEDAS) similarly predicted macronutrient distribution and disease incidence or mortality (diabetes incidence, CVD or all-cause mortality), when compared to a sample-specific score based on 136-item FFQ (MDS). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to MeDiet was associated with a decreased incidence of a composite outcome including diabetes incidence, cardiovascular events incidence or all-cause mortality.
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ABSTRACT: Keys, A. (84060 Pioppi (SA), Italy), A. Menotti, M. J. Karvonen, C. Aravanis, H. Blackburn, R. Buzina, B. S. Djordjevlc, A. S. Dontas, F. Fldanza, M. H. Keys, D. Kromhout, S. Nedeljkovic, S. Punsar, F. Seccareccia, and H. Toshima. The diet and 15-year death rate In the Seven Countries Study. Am J Epidemiol 1986; 124:903–15 In 15 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, comprising 11,579 men aged 40-years and “healthy” at entry, 2,288 died In 15 years. Death rates differed among cohorts. Differences In mean age, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and smoking habits “explained” 46% of variance in death rate from all causes, 80% from coronary heart dIsease, 35% from cancer, and 45% from stroke. Death rate differences were unrelated to cohort differences in mean relative body weIght. fatness, and physical activity. The cohorts differed in average dIets. Death rates were related positively to average percentage of dIetary energy from saturated fatty acids, negatively to dietary energy percentage from monounsaturated fatty acids, and were unrelated to dietary energy percentage from polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and alcohol. All death rates were negatively related to the ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acids. Inclusion of that ratio with age, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and smokIng habits as inde pendent variables accounted for 85% of variance In rates of deaths from all causes, 96% coronary heart dIsease, 55% cancer, and 66% stroke. Oleic acid accounted for almost all dIfferences In monounsaturates among cohorts. All- cause and coronary heart disease death rates were low In cohorts with olive oil the main fat Causal relationshIps are not claimed but consideration of characteristics of populations as well as of Individuals withIn populations is urged evaluating risks.American Journal of Epidemiology 01/1987; · 4.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the influence of a specific dietary pattern on overall survival. Cohort study. Three rural Greek villages, the data from which were collected as part of an international cross cultural study of food habits in later life. 182 elderly residents of the three villages. Overall mortality. Diet was assessed with a validated extensive semiquantitative questionnaire on food intake. A one unit increase in diet score, devised a priori on the basis of eight component characteristics of the traditional common diet in the Mediterranean region, was associated with a significant 17% reduction in overall mortality (95% confidence interval 1% to 31%). A diet meeting currently understood health criteria does predict survival among people.BMJ 01/1996; 311(7018):1457-60. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous cohort studies of fat intake and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been inconsistent, probably due in part to methodological differences and various limitations, including inadequate dietary assessment and incomplete adjustment for total energy intake. The authors analyzed repeated assessment of diet from the Nurses' Health Study to examine the associations between intakes of four major types of fat (saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fats) and risk of CHD during 14 years of follow-up (1980-1994) by using alternative methods for energy adjustment. In particular, the authors compared four risk models for energy adjustment: the standard multivariate model, the energy-partition model, the nutrient residual model, and the multivariate nutrient density model. Within each model, the authors compared four different approaches for analyzing repeated dietary measurements: baseline diet only, the most recent diet, and two different algorithms for calculating cumulative average diets. The substantive results were consistent across all models; that is, higher intakes of saturated and trans fats were associated with increased risk of CHD, while higher intakes of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats were associated with reduced risk. When nutrients were considered as continuous variables, the four energy-adjustment methods yielded similar associationS. However, the interpretation of the relative risks differed across models. In addition, within each model, the methods using the cumulative averages in general yielded stronger associations than did those using either only baseline diet or the most recent diet. When the nutrients were categorized according to quintiles, the residual and the nutrient density models, which gave similar results, yielded statistically more significant tests for linear trend than did the standard and the partition models.American Journal of Epidemiology 04/1999; 149(6):531-40. · 4.78 Impact Factor