Attenuation of airway hyperreactivity and T helper cell type 2 responses by coumarins from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation.
ABSTRACT The root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn (PPD) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of asthma. Its major constituents, coumarins, were presumed to be responsible for its efficacy.
The potential of coumarins from PPD (CPPD) as anti-asthma agent was investigated.
Female BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce allergic airway inflammation. CPPD was administered intragastrically before every OVA challenge. Airway reactivity to the intravenous administration of acetylcholine chloride was measured 48h after final OVA inhalation. Airway inflammation was evaluated by leukocyte counts of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and histopathological analysis of lung lesions. Levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ in BALF and OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E in serum, and activity of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) in lung was measured. The percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells among CD4(+) T cells in spleen was analyzed by flow cytometry.
Compared with model group, CPPD significantly reduced airway hyperreactivity and airway eosinophilic inflammation, improved pathologic lesion of the lungs, reduced levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 in BALF and OVA-specific IgE in serum, inhibited the activities of EPO in lung, and up-regulated levels of IL-10 and IFN-γ in BALF as well as the percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in spleen.
CPPD can significantly suppress OVA-induced airway inflammation, airway hyperreactivity and Th2 predominant response in mice, showing great therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic asthma.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many chiral drugs are used as the racemic mixtures in clinical practice. The occurrence of enantioselectively pharmacological activities calls for the development of enantiospecific analytical approaches during pharmacokinetic studies of enantiomers. Sample preparation plays a key role during quantitative analysis of biological samples. In current study, a rapid and reliable online solid phase extraction-chiral high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE-chiral LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneously enantiospecific quantitation of (+)-trans-khellactone (dTK), (+/-)-cis-khellactone (d/lCK), (+/-)-praeruptorin A (d/lPA), (+/-)-praeruptorin B (d/lPB) and (+)-praeruptorin E (dPE), the main active angular-type pyranocoumarins (APs) in Peucedani Radix (Chinese name: Qian-hu) or the major metabolites of those APs, in rat plasma. The validation assay results described here show good selectivity and enantiospecificity, extraction efficiency, accuracy and precision with quantification limits (LOQs) of 2.57, 1.28, 1.28, 1.88, 4.16, 4.16 and 4.18ngmL(-1) for dTK, lCK, dCK, dPA, dPB, lPB and dPE, respectively, while lPA was not detected in rat plasma due to the carboxylesterase(s)-mediated hydrolysis. In addition, the validated system was satisfactorily applied to characterize the pharmacokinetic properties of those components in normal and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rats following oral administration of Qian-hu extract. dCK and lCK were observed as the main herb-related compounds in plasma. Enantioselectively pharmacokinetic profiles occurred for dCK vs lCK, dPA vs lPA, and dPB vs lPB in either normal or COPD rats. The proposed whole system is expected to be a preferable analytical tool for in vivo study of chiral drugs, in particular for the characterization of enantioselectively pharmacokinetic profiles.Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 09/2013; 88C:269-277. · 2.45 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As a widely used traditional herbal medicine, it is crucial to characterize the holistic metabolic profile of Peucedani Radix (Chinese name: Qian-hu). However, it is quite arduous to obtain the whole picture of chemical constituents appropriately with the existing analytical techniques that were based on HPLC-UV or LC-MS/MS system. In present investigation, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with principal components analysis (PCA) was introduced to metabolomic characterization of Qian-hu crude extracts without any chromatographic separation. In addition, the contents of praeruptorin A (PA) and proaeruptorin B (PB) in Qian-hu were simultaneously determined using quantitative (1)H NMR (q(1)H NMR) spectroscopy. Eighteen reference compounds (1-18), which were purified from this herbal drug extract previously, were recruited for the assignment of the protonic signals in the (1)H NMR spectra. Following PCA, 15 batches of Peucedani Radix were divided into two groups (I and II), and angular-type pyranocoumarins, in particular PA and PB, as well as 5-methoxycoumarin were demonstrated as the predominant markers being responsible for the distinguishment of Qian-hu from different districts. The contents of the two analytes (PA & PB) were calculated by the relative ratio of the integral values of the target peak for each compound to the known amount of the internal standard, formononetin (IS). The lower limits of quantitation were determined as 19.5μg/mL for both PA and PB. The quantitative results indicated that the contents of PA and PB showed quite variable qualities among different extract samples. Above all, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, that could not only provide comprehensive profiles of the metabolites but also achieve convenient determination of praeruptorin A and praeruptorin B, is a promising means for evaluating the medicinal samples of Peucedani Radix.Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 08/2013; · 2.45 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The study of the ˙OOH, ˙OOCH3 and ˙OOCHCH2 radicals scavenging processes by esculetin (ES) was carried out in aqueous and lipid media, using the density functional theory. Three reaction mechanisms were considered: single electron transfer (SET), hydrogen transfer (HT) and radical adduct formation (RAF). Rate constants and branching ratios for the different paths are reported. It was found that in lipid media the main mechanism of reaction is HT, while in aqueous solution it depends on the predominant acid-base form of esculetin. HT was found to be the main mechanism involved in the free radical scavenging activity of neutral esculetin (H2ES), while for anionic esculetin (HES(-)) the relative importance of the different mechanisms changes with the reacting radical. Based on the calculated rate constants, it is proposed that esculetin has moderate peroxyl scavenging activity in lipid media while in aqueous solution, at physiological pH, it is excellent for that purpose. In addition, the possible regeneration of ES, after scavenging the first radical, was investigated in aqueous solution, at physiological pH. It was found that regeneration is very likely to occur, which suggests that this compound has the ability to scavenge several radical equivalents (two per cycle), under such conditions.Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 12/2013; · 3.83 Impact Factor