Reliability and validity of gait analysis by android-based smartphone.
ABSTRACT Smartphones are very common devices in daily life that have a built-in tri-axial accelerometer. Similar to previously developed accelerometers, smartphones can be used to assess gait patterns. However, few gait analyses have been performed using smartphones, and their reliability and validity have not been evaluated yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a smartphone accelerometer. Thirty healthy young adults participated in this study. They walked 20 m at their preferred speeds, and their trunk accelerations were measured using a smartphone and a tri-axial accelerometer that was secured over the L3 spinous process. We developed a gait analysis application and installed it in the smartphone to measure the acceleration. After signal processing, we calculated the gait parameters of each measurement terminal: peak frequency (PF), root mean square (RMS), autocorrelation peak (AC), and coefficient of variance (CV) of the acceleration peak intervals. Remarkable consistency was observed in the test-retest reliability of all the gait parameter results obtained by the smartphone (p<0.001). All the gait parameter results obtained by the smartphone showed statistically significant and considerable correlations with the same parameter results obtained by the tri-axial accelerometer (PF r=0.99, RMS r=0.89, AC r=0.85, CV r=0.82; p<0.01). Our study indicates that the smartphone with gait analysis application used in this study has the capacity to quantify gait parameters with a degree of accuracy that is comparable to that of the tri-axial accelerometer.