Predictors of serum vitamin D levels in African American and European American men in Chicago.

Department of Urology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.
American journal of men's health (Impact Factor: 1.15). 03/2012; 6(5):420-6. DOI: 10.1177/1557988312437240
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vitamin D deficiency is epidemiologically linked to prostate, breast, and colon cancer. When compared with European American (EA) men, African American (AA) men have increased risk of prostate cancer, but few studies evaluate vitamin D status in AA men. The authors evaluate the biological and environmental predictors of vitamin D deficiency in AA and EA men in Chicago, Illinois, a low ultraviolet radiation environment. Blood samples were collected from 492 men, aged between 40 and 79 years, from urology clinics at three hospitals in Chicago, along with demographic and medical information, body mass index, and skin melanin content using a portable narrow-band reflectometer. Vitamin D intake and ultraviolet radiation exposure were assessed using validated questionnaires. The results demonstrated that Black race, cold season of blood draw, elevated body mass index, and lack of vitamin D supplementation increase the risk of vitamin D deficiency. Supplementation is a high-impact, modifiable risk factor. Race and sunlight exposure should be taken into account for recommended daily allowances for vitamin D intake.

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    ABSTRACT: The association between vitamin D and prostate biopsy outcomes has not been evaluated. We examine serum vitamin D levels with prostate biopsy results in men with an abnormal prostate-specific antigen and/or digital rectal examination. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) was obtained from 667 men, ages 40 to 79 years, prospectively enrolled from Chicago urology clinics undergoing first prostate biopsy. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between 25-OH D status and incident prostate cancer, Gleason score, and tumor stage. Among European American (EA) men, there was an association of 25-OH D <12 ng/mL with higher Gleason score ≥ 4+4 [OR, 3.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.41-9.50; P = 0.008] and tumor stage [stage ≥ cT2b vs. ≤ cT2a, OR, 2.42 (1.14-5.10); P = 0.008]. In African American (AA) men, we find increased odds of prostate cancer diagnosis on biopsy with 25-OH D < 20 ng/mL [OR, 2.43 (1.20-4.94); P = 0.01]. AA men demonstrated an association between 25-OH D < 12 ng/mL and Gleason ≥ 4+4 [OR, 4.89 (1.59-15.07); P = 0.006]. There was an association with tumor stage ≥ cT2b vs. ≤ cT2a [OR, 4.22 (1.52-11.74); P = 0.003]. In AA men, vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased odds of prostate cancer diagnosis on biopsy. In both EA and AA men, severe deficiency was positively associated with higher Gleason grade and tumor stage. Clin Cancer Res; 20(9); 2289-99. ©2014 AACR.
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