Giant Cell Tumor of the Extremity Retrospective Analysis of 621 Chinese Patients from One Institution

Department of Orthopedic Oncology Surgery, Beijing Ji Shui Tan Hospital, Peking University, 31 Xinjiekou East Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100035, China.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Impact Factor: 5.28). 03/2012; 94(5):461-7. DOI: 10.2106/JBJS.J.01922
Source: PubMed


There are no recent reports of giant cell tumors of bone in a large series of Chinese people. The present study was designed to review the epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of surgical management in a large series of Chinese patients with giant cell tumor of an extremity, treated at a single institution.
The records and images of 621 patients in whom a benign giant cell tumor in an extremity was treated between 1989 and 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 359 male and 262 female patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 31.4 years (range, eleven to seventy-one years). Sixty-six percent of the giant cell tumors were localized around the knee. Surgical treatments primarily included curettage, extensive curettage, and resection. The median duration of follow-up was forty-nine months (range, eighteen to 256 months).
Giant cell tumor accounted for 13.7% of all primary bone tumors treated at our institution. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the only variable that contributed to recurrence-free survival was the type of surgical treatment. The local recurrence rate after extensive curettage was 8.6%, which was significantly lower than the 56.1% recurrence rate after curettage alone. Bone-grafting did not affect local tumor control after extensive curettage; the local recurrence rate was 11.1% if bone graft was used. Recurrent giant cell tumor can be treated by further curettage or resection, with acceptable re-recurrence rates of 6.7% and 9.3% respectively. The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score for patients treated with extensive curettage was 92.6%, which was significantly higher than that for patients treated with resection. Twenty-one (3.4%) of the 621 patients developed benign pulmonary metastasis, with a favorable outcome, and three patients presented with multifocal giant cell tumors.
The incidence of giant cell tumor in the Chinese population may be higher than that in Western countries, and it has a male predilection. The results of the present study suggest that extensive curettage provides favorable local control and satisfactory functional outcomes.

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    • "Indeed, the incidence was slightly higher than previously reported in the US (0.16 per million).17 Notably, a higher incidence of GCTs in the Chinese population has been reported, ranging from 13.7 to 20 % of all bone tumors (benign and malignant).16,18 In contrast, the incidence was only 5 % in other large-scale studies.16–18 "
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    ABSTRACT: Primary bone cancer (BC) incidence by age has not been surveyed in Asia. The incidence patterns of nine subtypes of primary BCs registered between 2003 and 2010 were analyzed from Taiwan cancer registry data. More specific analyses were conducted within age groups (Group I: 0-24 years; Group II: 25-59 years; and Group III: 60-85+ years). A total of 1,238 newly diagnosed subjects were registered with an age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of 6.70 per million person-years. Overall, osteosarcoma (OS: 45 %) was the most common, followed by chondrosarcoma (CS: 18 %), and Ewing sarcoma (ES: 8 %). The percentages of cases and ASRs for age groups I, II, and III were 36.3, 43.0, and 20.7 %, and 7.00, 5.48, and 10.28 per million, respectively. Significant male predilections were observed for all BCs combined, and the CS, chordoma, and malignant ameloblastoma subtypes. Our findings demonstrated an upward trend of 4.8 % per year over the study period, and was more significant for females (6.7 %). A significant increase in trend existed in the incidence of BC among females in Group II, and the incidence of OS and ES among females in Group I. This population-based study has allowed us to confidently define the incidence rates among three age groups of Taiwanese. Despite overall low rates, the upward trend in BC incidence among females may invoke a concern. The results suggest areas for further study into the underlying causes for these cancer trends.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 04/2014; 21(8). DOI:10.1245/s10434-014-3697-3 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    • "As a result, the vast selection of clinically-approved adjuvants may be overwhelming for many clinicians, resulting in default use of sub-optimal older methods due to subjective comfort levels rather than clinical viability [26]. Several reports have reported dramatic decreases in recurrence rates in patients treated with PMMA, PMMA with phenol, or phenol with other chemical adjuvants (22%, 27%, and 15% recurrence, respectively) [3,16,27,28]. Niu et al. [16] reported that extended curettage with combined high speed burring, bone graft, and PMMA cementation resulted in an extremely low recurrence rate of 3.3%, though numerous other studies refute these findings and provide conflicting results [14,17,25,29,30]. Algawahmed et al.[29] conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 387 GCT patients, demonstrating that meticulous surgical techniques, including high-speed burring, are paramount to reducing GCT recurrence rates. "
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    ABSTRACT: Reports of recurrence following restructuring of primary giant cell tumor (GCT) defects using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cementation or allogeneic bone graft with and without adjuvants for intralesional curettage vary widely. Systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to investigate efficacy of PMMA bone cementation and allogeneic bone grafting following intralesional curettage for GCT. Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies reporting GCT of bone treatment with PMMA cementation and/or bone grafting with or without adjuvant therapy following intralesional curettage of primary GCTs. Pooled risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for local recurrence risks were calculated by fixed-effects methods. Of 1,690 relevant titles, 6 eligible studies (1,293 patients) spanning March 2008 to December 2011 were identified in published data. Treatment outcomes of PMMA-only (n = 374), bone graft-only (n = 436), PMMA with or without adjuvant (PMMA + adjuvant; n = 594), and bone graft filling with or without adjuvant (bone graft + adjuvant; n = 699) were compared. Bone graft-only patients exhibited higher recurrence rates than PMMA-treated patients (RR 2.09, 95% CI (1.64, 2.66), Overall effect: Z = 6.00; P <0.001), and bone graft + adjuvant patients exhibited higher recurrence rates than PMMA + adjuvant patients (RR 1.66, 95% CI (1.21, 2.28), Overall effect: Z = 3.15, P = 0.002). Local recurrence was minimal in PMMA cementation patients, suggesting that PMMA is preferable for routine clinical restructuring in eligible GCT patients. Relationships between tumor characteristics, other modern adjuvants, and recurrence require further exploration.
    World Journal of Surgical Oncology 07/2013; 11(1):156. DOI:10.1186/1477-7819-11-156 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    • "We analyzed overall epidemiological data of GCT to find the gender ratio, the most likely site, the peak age range and, in particular, the effects of gender on tumor site, age at the time of first diagnosis, local recurrence and pulmonary metastasis. We further compared our findings with those reported by Niu's study [15] "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Update reports are rarely available regarding the bone giant cell tumors (GCTs) in the extremity in Chinese people. The aim of this study was to review the epidemiological characteristics of bone GCT in the extremity based on the clinical data from four hospitals in South China. Methods: We searched medical electronic records from January 2001 to December 2011 in four hospitals in South China to identify patients with definite diagnosis of extremity GCT. Epidemiological data including gender, tumor site, age at the time of first diagnosis, local recurrence and pulmonary metastasis were collected and analyzed statistically. Differences between-genders were particularly analyzed regarding first diagnosis age, tumor site, local recurrence and pulmonary metastasis. T-test and Chi-square test were used for continuous and dichotomous variables, respectively. Results: A total of 140 GCT patients (87 males and 53 females) were identified. The gender ratio was 1.64 for a male predominance. GCTs were mostly located around the knee (67 cases). 92 patients were in their 20s to 40s upon first diagnosis. The average age at the time of first diagnosis for all was 30.49 years, 30.76 years for males and 30.06 years for females (P = 0.757). GCT recurred locally in 50 patients (26 males and 24 females) with no gender difference (P = 0.065). The average interval from first surgery to local recurrence was 21.42 months. Pulmonary metastasis was found in 11 patients (8 males and 3 females) also with no gender difference (P = 0.667). The average interval from first diagnosis to metastasis was 36.45 months. Conclusions: Extremity GCT may have a male predominance in Chinese population and mostly occur at 20-40 years of age and around the knee. Follow-ups for GCT patients should be carried on for at least 3 years after primary surgery according to the average intervals for possible local recurrence and pulmonary metastasis.
    02/2013; 37(3). DOI:10.1016/j.canep.2013.01.009
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