Giant cell tumor of the extremity: retrospective analysis of 621 Chinese patients from one institution.
ABSTRACT There are no recent reports of giant cell tumors of bone in a large series of Chinese people. The present study was designed to review the epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of surgical management in a large series of Chinese patients with giant cell tumor of an extremity, treated at a single institution.
The records and images of 621 patients in whom a benign giant cell tumor in an extremity was treated between 1989 and 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 359 male and 262 female patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 31.4 years (range, eleven to seventy-one years). Sixty-six percent of the giant cell tumors were localized around the knee. Surgical treatments primarily included curettage, extensive curettage, and resection. The median duration of follow-up was forty-nine months (range, eighteen to 256 months).
Giant cell tumor accounted for 13.7% of all primary bone tumors treated at our institution. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the only variable that contributed to recurrence-free survival was the type of surgical treatment. The local recurrence rate after extensive curettage was 8.6%, which was significantly lower than the 56.1% recurrence rate after curettage alone. Bone-grafting did not affect local tumor control after extensive curettage; the local recurrence rate was 11.1% if bone graft was used. Recurrent giant cell tumor can be treated by further curettage or resection, with acceptable re-recurrence rates of 6.7% and 9.3% respectively. The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score for patients treated with extensive curettage was 92.6%, which was significantly higher than that for patients treated with resection. Twenty-one (3.4%) of the 621 patients developed benign pulmonary metastasis, with a favorable outcome, and three patients presented with multifocal giant cell tumors.
The incidence of giant cell tumor in the Chinese population may be higher than that in Western countries, and it has a male predilection. The results of the present study suggest that extensive curettage provides favorable local control and satisfactory functional outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a benign tumor with a tendency for local recurrence. Secondary malignant GCTB is rare, occurring in less than 2 % of GCTB cases. Mechanisms of malignant transformation of GCTB remain unclear. We examined 43 cases of GCTB (38 conventional cases, two lung implantation cases, and three secondary malignant cases) for p53 gene mutations and for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of p53 when corresponding normal tissue was available. In addition, to elucidate the possible involvement of p53, GPX-1, cyclinD1, and Ki-67 in malignant transformation of GCTB, we assessed the expression of these proteins by immunohistochemistry. Mutations or LOH of p53 were found in all three malignant cases, which also showed p53 overexpression. Non-synonymous p53 mutations were detected in seven of 38 conventional cases (18 %), although none of these showed p53 overexpression, defined as more than 10 % of cells being positive. LOH at the p53 locus was detected in eight of 37 informative cases, although this was not associated with p53 overexpression in conventional GCT. Expression of GPX-1 was higher in the recurrent group, which included metastatic and malignant cases, and patients with high GPX-1 expression were at greater risk for early relapse. We also observed a positive correlation between high p53 expression and high GPX-1 expression in GCTB. Given that GPX-1 is shown to be a target of p53, these results suggest that p53 mutations play a role in tumor recurrence and malignant transformation of GCTB through interactions with GPX-1.Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 06/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The distal tibia is an unusual location for a giant cell tumor (GCT). Treatment choices are unclear because of their rarity, the anatomy of the ankle, and difficulties associated with reconstruction. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We assessed: (1) the treatment modalities used by participating Canadian bone tumor centers for distal tibia GCTs; (2) the incidence of local recurrence and their management; and (3) patients' function after treatment. METHODS: A prospective tumor database served to identify all 31 patients with primarily treated distal tibia GCTs between 1991 and 2010. We extracted patients and tumor characteristics, treatment modalities for initial and recurrent tumors, and the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) and Toronto Extremity Salvage (TESS) scores. The median followup was 58 months (range, 24-192 months). RESULTS: Extended curettage was the only modality of treatment for all patients including all subsequent local recurrences. Nine had local recurrence, three of which had a second local recurrence; one had a third recurrence. Ultimately all patients were in remission at last followup. The local recurrence rate was 29% and appeared higher compared with recent series of all anatomic sites. The mean final MSTS and TESS scores were 91% (range, 71%-100%) and 88% (range, 35%-100%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Extended curettage was the unique modality of surgical treatment for all tumors. We found the incidence of local recurrence higher than that reported for other locations but recurrences were manageable with repeated curettage. Complications and function appeared better than those reported for series of ankle fusion or reconstruction for bone tumors. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, retrospective study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 04/2013; · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reports of recurrence following restructuring of primary giant cell tumor (GCT) defects using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cementation or allogeneic bone graft with and without adjuvants for intralesional curettage vary widely. Systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to investigate efficacy of PMMA bone cementation and allogeneic bone grafting following intralesional curettage for GCT. Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies reporting GCT of bone treatment with PMMA cementation and/or bone grafting with or without adjuvant therapy following intralesional curettage of primary GCTs. Pooled risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for local recurrence risks were calculated by fixed-effects methods. Of 1,690 relevant titles, 6 eligible studies (1,293 patients) spanning March 2008 to December 2011 were identified in published data. Treatment outcomes of PMMA-only (n = 374), bone graft-only (n = 436), PMMA with or without adjuvant (PMMA + adjuvant; n = 594), and bone graft filling with or without adjuvant (bone graft + adjuvant; n = 699) were compared. Bone graft-only patients exhibited higher recurrence rates than PMMA-treated patients (RR 2.09, 95% CI (1.64, 2.66), Overall effect: Z = 6.00; P <0.001), and bone graft + adjuvant patients exhibited higher recurrence rates than PMMA + adjuvant patients (RR 1.66, 95% CI (1.21, 2.28), Overall effect: Z = 3.15, P = 0.002). Local recurrence was minimal in PMMA cementation patients, suggesting that PMMA is preferable for routine clinical restructuring in eligible GCT patients. Relationships between tumor characteristics, other modern adjuvants, and recurrence require further exploration.World Journal of Surgical Oncology 07/2013; 11(1):156. · 1.09 Impact Factor