Giant cell tumor of the extremity: retrospective analysis of 621 Chinese patients from one institution.
ABSTRACT There are no recent reports of giant cell tumors of bone in a large series of Chinese people. The present study was designed to review the epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of surgical management in a large series of Chinese patients with giant cell tumor of an extremity, treated at a single institution.
The records and images of 621 patients in whom a benign giant cell tumor in an extremity was treated between 1989 and 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 359 male and 262 female patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 31.4 years (range, eleven to seventy-one years). Sixty-six percent of the giant cell tumors were localized around the knee. Surgical treatments primarily included curettage, extensive curettage, and resection. The median duration of follow-up was forty-nine months (range, eighteen to 256 months).
Giant cell tumor accounted for 13.7% of all primary bone tumors treated at our institution. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the only variable that contributed to recurrence-free survival was the type of surgical treatment. The local recurrence rate after extensive curettage was 8.6%, which was significantly lower than the 56.1% recurrence rate after curettage alone. Bone-grafting did not affect local tumor control after extensive curettage; the local recurrence rate was 11.1% if bone graft was used. Recurrent giant cell tumor can be treated by further curettage or resection, with acceptable re-recurrence rates of 6.7% and 9.3% respectively. The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score for patients treated with extensive curettage was 92.6%, which was significantly higher than that for patients treated with resection. Twenty-one (3.4%) of the 621 patients developed benign pulmonary metastasis, with a favorable outcome, and three patients presented with multifocal giant cell tumors.
The incidence of giant cell tumor in the Chinese population may be higher than that in Western countries, and it has a male predilection. The results of the present study suggest that extensive curettage provides favorable local control and satisfactory functional outcomes.
- Journal of Orthopaedic Science 08/2013; · 0.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Primary bone cancer (BC) incidence by age has not been surveyed in Asia. The incidence patterns of nine subtypes of primary BCs registered between 2003 and 2010 were analyzed from Taiwan cancer registry data. More specific analyses were conducted within age groups (Group I: 0-24 years; Group II: 25-59 years; and Group III: 60-85+ years). A total of 1,238 newly diagnosed subjects were registered with an age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of 6.70 per million person-years. Overall, osteosarcoma (OS: 45 %) was the most common, followed by chondrosarcoma (CS: 18 %), and Ewing sarcoma (ES: 8 %). The percentages of cases and ASRs for age groups I, II, and III were 36.3, 43.0, and 20.7 %, and 7.00, 5.48, and 10.28 per million, respectively. Significant male predilections were observed for all BCs combined, and the CS, chordoma, and malignant ameloblastoma subtypes. Our findings demonstrated an upward trend of 4.8 % per year over the study period, and was more significant for females (6.7 %). A significant increase in trend existed in the incidence of BC among females in Group II, and the incidence of OS and ES among females in Group I. This population-based study has allowed us to confidently define the incidence rates among three age groups of Taiwanese. Despite overall low rates, the upward trend in BC incidence among females may invoke a concern. The results suggest areas for further study into the underlying causes for these cancer trends.Annals of Surgical Oncology 04/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) comprises up to 20 % of benign bone tumors in the US. GCTB are typically locally aggressive, but metastasize to the lung in ~5 % of cases. Malignant transformation occurs in a small percentage of cases, usually following radiation therapy. Historically, GCTB have been treated primarily with surgery. When the morbidity of surgery would be excessive, radiation therapy may achieve local control. In most cases the primary driver of the malignant cell appears to be a mutation in H3F3A leading to a substitution of Gly34 to either Trp or Leu in Histone H3.3. This change presumably alters the methylation of the protein, and thus, its effect on gene expression. The malignant stromal cells of GCTB secrete RANKL, which recruits osteoclast precursors to the tumor and stimulates their differentiation to osteoclasts. The elucidation of the biology of GCTB led to trials of the anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody denosumab in this disease, with a clear demonstration of beneficial clinical effect. Surgery remains the primary treatment of localized GCTB. When surgery is not possible or would be associated with excessive morbidity, denosumab is a good treatment option. The optimal length of treatment and schedule of denosumab is unknown, but recurrences after apparent complete responses have been observed after stopping denosumab, and long-term follow-up of denosumab treatment may reveal unrecognized effects. The role of denosumab in the preoperative or adjuvant setting will require clinical trials. In some cases local radiation therapy may be useful, although long term effects should be considered.Current Treatment Options in Oncology 05/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor