Giant Cell Tumor of the Extremity Retrospective Analysis of 621 Chinese Patients from One Institution
ABSTRACT There are no recent reports of giant cell tumors of bone in a large series of Chinese people. The present study was designed to review the epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of surgical management in a large series of Chinese patients with giant cell tumor of an extremity, treated at a single institution.
The records and images of 621 patients in whom a benign giant cell tumor in an extremity was treated between 1989 and 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 359 male and 262 female patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 31.4 years (range, eleven to seventy-one years). Sixty-six percent of the giant cell tumors were localized around the knee. Surgical treatments primarily included curettage, extensive curettage, and resection. The median duration of follow-up was forty-nine months (range, eighteen to 256 months).
Giant cell tumor accounted for 13.7% of all primary bone tumors treated at our institution. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the only variable that contributed to recurrence-free survival was the type of surgical treatment. The local recurrence rate after extensive curettage was 8.6%, which was significantly lower than the 56.1% recurrence rate after curettage alone. Bone-grafting did not affect local tumor control after extensive curettage; the local recurrence rate was 11.1% if bone graft was used. Recurrent giant cell tumor can be treated by further curettage or resection, with acceptable re-recurrence rates of 6.7% and 9.3% respectively. The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score for patients treated with extensive curettage was 92.6%, which was significantly higher than that for patients treated with resection. Twenty-one (3.4%) of the 621 patients developed benign pulmonary metastasis, with a favorable outcome, and three patients presented with multifocal giant cell tumors.
The incidence of giant cell tumor in the Chinese population may be higher than that in Western countries, and it has a male predilection. The results of the present study suggest that extensive curettage provides favorable local control and satisfactory functional outcomes.
- SourceAvailable from: Nan Jiang
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- "We analyzed overall epidemiological data of GCT to find the gender ratio, the most likely site, the peak age range and, in particular, the effects of gender on tumor site, age at the time of first diagnosis, local recurrence and pulmonary metastasis. We further compared our findings with those reported by Niu's study  "
ABSTRACT: Background: Update reports are rarely available regarding the bone giant cell tumors (GCTs) in the extremity in Chinese people. The aim of this study was to review the epidemiological characteristics of bone GCT in the extremity based on the clinical data from four hospitals in South China. Methods: We searched medical electronic records from January 2001 to December 2011 in four hospitals in South China to identify patients with definite diagnosis of extremity GCT. Epidemiological data including gender, tumor site, age at the time of first diagnosis, local recurrence and pulmonary metastasis were collected and analyzed statistically. Differences between-genders were particularly analyzed regarding first diagnosis age, tumor site, local recurrence and pulmonary metastasis. T-test and Chi-square test were used for continuous and dichotomous variables, respectively. Results: A total of 140 GCT patients (87 males and 53 females) were identified. The gender ratio was 1.64 for a male predominance. GCTs were mostly located around the knee (67 cases). 92 patients were in their 20s to 40s upon first diagnosis. The average age at the time of first diagnosis for all was 30.49 years, 30.76 years for males and 30.06 years for females (P=0.757). GCT recurred locally in 50 patients (26 males and 24 females) with no gender difference (P=0.065). The average interval from first surgery to local recurrence was 21.42 months. Pulmonary metastasis was found in 11 patients (8 males and 3 females) also with no gender difference (P=0.667). The average interval from first diagnosis to metastasis was 36.45 months. Conclusions: Extremity GCT may have a male predominance in Chinese population and mostly occur at 20-40 years of age and around the knee. Follow-ups for GCT patients should be carried on for at least 3 years after primary surgery according to the average intervals for possible local recurrence and pulmonary metastasis.02/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.canep.2013.01.009
- The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 07/2012; 97(10):3408-9. DOI:10.1210/jc.2012-2163 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Giant-cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a rare osteolytic tumor of the bone. Although classified as a benign tumor, GCTB is characterized by local aggressiveness and risk of local recurrence. In addition, GTCB can in some cases lead to the development of so-called 'benign' chest metastases. Surgical resection by intralesional curettage with high-speed burring and polymethylmethacrylate cement is the standard treatment for resectable tumors. In cases of metastatic or unresectable disease (when planned surgical procedure is impossible or would result in severe morbidity), medical treatments such as cytotoxic chemotherapy or interferon-α have limited efficacy. Bisphosphonates have been proposed as a therapeutic option to reduce osteoclast activity. In bone, various pathological states may result from an imbalance in the RANK (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B)/RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand)/OPG (osteoprotegerin) pathway. Involvement of the RANKL pathway in pathogenesis of GCTB was first proposed in 2000. Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds and inhibits RANKL, thereby preventing the activation of the RANK pathway. As it showed the possibility to counteract osteoclast activation in GCTB and prevent the known physiopathological role of RANKL, denosumab has been under evaluation in the clinic as a treatment for GCTB since 2005. Results of a first Phase II trial demonstrate the therapeutic potential of denosumab to inhibit progressive bone destruction and metastatic progression in patients with unsalvageable giant-cell tumor (GCT), and have also provided key insights into the biology of GCT. Denosumab is currently a therapeutic option for patients with unresectable GCTB but its place in the global therapeutic strategy has not yet been defined.09/2012; 1:149. DOI:10.1038/bonekey.2012.149