Incidence and risk factors of lower-extremity lymphedema after radical surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with FIGO stage I to stage IIA cervical cancer.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors of lower-extremity lymphedema (LEL) in women who had radical surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I to stage IIA cervical cancer.
The medical records were reviewed retrospectively on patients with histologically confirmed FIGO stage I to IIA cervical cancer. Lower-extremity lymphedema-related medical problems such as peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, or chronic renal disease were excluded. A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between variable clinical characteristics and development of LEL.
We evaluated 707 patients. Of the 707 patients evaluated, we excluded 92 patients who had received radiotherapy as the initial therapy and 19 patients with LEL related to medical problems. Seventy-five patients (12.6%) developed LEL. The incidence was high in patients with adjuvant radiotherapy (odds ratio, 3.47; 95% confidence interval, 2.086-5.788; P = 0.000), with 78.7% of the patients with LEL having developed the condition within 3 years after initial treatment.
Adjuvant radiotherapy was significantly associated with development of LEL in women who had undergone radical surgery with lymphadenectomy for FIGO stage I to stage IIA cervical cancer. The possibility for the occurrence of LEL must be fully explained before treatment and patients should be provided with the appropriate preventive education. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the incidence and risk factors for LEL.
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ABSTRACT: The management of endocervical adenocarcinoma is largely based on tumor size and depth of invasion (DOI); however, DOI is difficult to measure accurately. The surgical treatment includes resection of regional lymph nodes, even though most lymph nodes are negative and lymphadenectomies can cause significant morbidity. We have investigated alternative parameters to better identify patients at risk of node metastases. Cases of invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma from 12 institutions were reviewed, and clinical/pathologic features assessed: patients' age, tumor size, DOI, differentiation, lymph-vascular invasion, lymph node metastases, recurrences, and stage. Cases were classified according to a new pattern-based system into Pattern A (well-demarcated glands), B (early destructive stromal invasion arising from well-demarcated glands), and C (diffuse destructive invasion). In total, 352 cases (FIGO Stages I-IV) were identified. Patients' age ranged from 20 to 83 years (mean 45), DOI ranged from 0.2 to 27 mm (mean 6.73), and lymph-vascular invasion was present in 141 cases. Forty-nine (13.9%) demonstrated lymph node metastases. Using this new system, 73 patients (20.7%) with Pattern A tumors (all Stage I) were identified. None had lymph node metastases and/or recurrences. Ninety patients (25.6%) had Pattern B tumors, of which 4 (4.4%) had positive nodes; whereas 189 (53.7%) had Pattern C tumors, of which 45 (23.8%) had metastatic nodes. The proposed classification system can spare 20.7% of patients (Pattern A) of unnecessary lymphadenectomy. Patients with Pattern B rarely present with positive nodes. An aggressive approach is justified in patients with Pattern C. This classification system is simple, easy to apply, and clinically significant.International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 09/2013; · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Effective surgical treatments for lymphedema now can address the fluid and solid phases of the disease process. Microsurgical procedures, including lymphaticovenous anastomosis (LVA) and vascularized lymph node transfer (VLNT), target the fluid component that predominates at earlier stages of the disease. Suction-assisted protein lipectomy (SAPL) addresses the solid component that typically presents later as chronic, nonpitting lymphedema of an extremity. We assess the outcomes of patients who underwent selective application of these three surgical procedures as part of an effective system to treat lymphedema. This is a retrospective chart review of patients with lymphedema who underwent complete decongestive therapy followed by surgical treatment with SAPL, LVA, or VLNT. The primary outcomes measured were postoperative volume reduction (SAPL), daily requirement for compression garments and lymphedema therapy (VLNT and LVA), and the incidence of severe cellulitis. Twenty-six patients were included in the study, of which 10 underwent SAPL and 16 underwent LVA or VLNT. The average reduction of excess volume by SAPL was 3,212 mL in legs and 943 mL in arms, or a volume reduction of 87 and 111 %, respectively, when compared with the unaffected, opposite sides. Microsurgical procedures (VLNT and LVA) significantly reduced the need for both compression garment use (p = 0.003) and lymphedema therapy (p < 0.0001). The overall rate of cellulitis decreased from 58 % before surgery to 15 % after surgery (p < 0.0001). When applied appropriately to properly selected patients, surgical procedures used in the treatment of lymphedema are effective and safe.Annals of Surgical Oncology 02/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The current mainstay of lymphedema therapy has been conservative nonsurgical treatment. However, surgical options for lymphedema have been reported for over a century. Early surgical procedures were often invasive and disfiguring, and they often had only limited long-term success. In contrast, contemporary surgical techniques are much less invasive and have been shown to be effective in reducing excess limb volume, the risk of cellulitis, and the need for compression garment use and lymphedema therapy. Microsurgical procedures such as lymphaticovenous anastomosis and vascularized lymph node transfer lymphaticolymphatic bypass can treat the excess fluid component of lymphedema swelling that presents as pitting edema. Suction-assisted protein lipectomy is a minimally invasive procedure that addresses the solid component of lymphedema swelling that typically occurs later in the disease process and presents as chronic nonpitting lymphedema. These surgical techniques are becoming increasingly popular and their success continues to be documented in the medical literature. We review the efficacy and limitations of these contemporary surgical procedures for lymphedema. A Medline literature review was performed of lymphedema surgery, vascularized lymph node transfer, lymphaticovenous anastomosis, lymphatic liposuction, and lymphaticolymphatic bypass with particular emphasis on developments within the past 10 years. A literature review of technique, indications, and outcomes of the surgical treatments for lymphedema was undertaken. Surgical treatments have evolved to become less invasive and more effective. With proper diagnosis and the appropriate selection of procedure, surgical techniques can be used to treat lymphedema safely and effectively in many patients when combined with integrated lymphedema therapy.Annals of Surgical Oncology 02/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor