Tract-specific analysis of white matter integrity disruption in schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Several studies have suggested that white matter integrity is disrupted in some brain regions in patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to assess the white matter integrity of the cingulum, uncinate fasciculus, fornix, and corpus callosum using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Participants comprised 39 patients with schizophrenia (19 males and 20 females) and 40 age-matched normal controls (20 males and 20 females). We quantitatively assessed the fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the anterior cingulum, body of the cingulum, uncinate fasciculus, fornix, and corpus callosum on a tract-specific basis using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). Group differences in FA and ADC between the patients and normal controls were sought. Additional exploratory analyses of the relationship between the FA or ADC and four clinical parameters (i.e., illness duration, positive symptom scores, negative symptom scores, and medication dosage) were performed. Results were analyzed in gender-combined and gender-separated group comparisons. FA was significantly lower on both sides of the anterior cingulum, uncinate fasciculus, and fornix in the schizophrenia patients irrespective of gender group separation. In the gender-combined analyses, significantly higher ADC values were demonstrated in the schizophrenia patients in both sides of the anterior cingulum, body of the cingulum and uncinate fasciculus, the left fornix, and the corpus callosum, compared with those of the normal controls. In the gender-separated analyses, the male patients showed higher ADC in the left anterior cingulum, the bilateral cingulum bodies, and the bilateral uncinate fasciculi. The female patients showed higher ADC in the right anterior cingulum, the left fornix, and the bilateral uncinate fasciculus. In correlation analyses, a significant negative correlation was found between illness duration and ADC in the right anterior cingulum in the gender-combined analyses. The gender-separated analyses found that the male patients had a significant negative correlation between negative symptom scores and FA in the right fornix, a positive correlation between illness duration and FA in the right anterior cingulum, and a negative correlation between illness duration and FA in the left uncinate fasciculus. Our DTI study showed that the integrity of white matter is disrupted in patients with schizophrenia. The results of our sub-analyses suggest that changes in FA and ADC may be related to negative symptom scores or illness duration.
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ABSTRACT: Psychosis is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease whose pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Parkinson's disease in conjunction with psychosis has been shown to induce injury to extracorticospinal tracts as well as within some cortical areas. In this study, Parkinson's disease patients with psychosis who did not receive antipsychotic treatment and those without psychosis underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Results revealed that in Parkinson's disease patients with psychosis, damage to the left frontal lobe, bilateral occipital lobe, left cingulated gyrus, and left hippocampal white-matter fibers were greater than damage to the substantia nigra or the globus pallidus. Damage to white-matter fibers in the right frontal lobe and right cingulate gyrus were also more severe than in the globus pallidus, but not the substantia nigra. Damage to frontal lobe and cingulate gyrus white-matter fibers was more apparent than that to occipital or hippocampal fiber damage. Compared with Parkinson's disease patients without psychosis, those with psychosis had significantly lower fractional anisotropy ratios of left frontal lobe, bilateral occipital lobe, left cingu-lated gyrus, and left hippocampus to ipsilateral substantia nigra or globus pallidus, indicating more severe damage to white-matter fibers. These results suggest that psychosis associated with Par-kinson's disease is probably associated with an imbalance in the ratio of white-matter fibers be-tween brain regions associated with psychiatric symptoms (frontal lobe, occipital lobe, cingulate gyrus, and hippocampus) and those associated with the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (the substantia nigra and globus pallidus). The relatively greater damage to white-matter fibers in psychiatric symptom-related brain regions than in extracorticospinal tracts might explain why chosis often occurs in Parkinson's disease patients.Neural Regeneration Research 09/2013; 8(27):2548-56. · 0.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: a r t i c l e i n f o Background: White matter abnormality has been recently proposed as a pathophysiological feature of schizo-phrenia (SZ). However, most of the data available has been gathered from chronic patients, and was therefore possibly confounded by factors such as duration of the disease, and treatment received. The extent and localiza-tion of these changes is also not clear. Methods: We examined a population of early stage SZ patients using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). 77 SZ pa-tients and 60 healthy controls (HCs) were included in the analysis using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). We have also analyzed 250 randomly created subsets of the original cohort, to investigate the relation between the result of TBSS analysis, and the size of the sample studied. Results: We have found a significant decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA) in the patient group. This change is present in most major white matter (WM) tracts including the corpus callosum, superior and inferior longitudi-nal fasciculi, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and posterior thalamic radiation. Furthermore, we identified a clear trend towards an increase in the number and spatial extent of significant voxels reported, with an increas-ing number of subjects included in the analysis. Conclusion: Our study shows that FA is significantly decreased in patients at an early stage of schizophrenia, and that the extent of this finding is dependent on the size of studied sample; therefore underpowered studies might produce results with false spatial localization.Schizophrenia Research 02/2015; · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an extension of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), exhibiting improved sensitivity and specificity in detecting developmental and pathological changes in neural tissues. However, little attention was paid to the performances of DKI and DTI in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia. In this study, DKI and DTI were performed in 94 schizophrenia patients and 91 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. White matter integrity was assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), mean kurtosis (MK), axial kurtosis (AK) and radial kurtosis (RK) of DKI and FA, MD, AD and RD of DTI. Group differences in these parameters were compared using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) (P < 0.01, corrected). The sensitivities in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia were MK (34%) > AK (20%) > RK (3%) and RD (37%) > FA (24%) > MD (21%) for DKI, and RD (43%) > FA (30%) > MD (21%) for DTI. DKI-derived diffusion parameters (RD, FA and MD) were sensitive to detect abnormality in white matter regions (the corpus callosum and anterior limb of internal capsule) with coherent fiber arrangement; however, the kurtosis parameters (MK and AK) were sensitive to reveal abnormality in white matter regions (the juxtacortical white matter and corona radiata) with complex fiber arrangement. In schizophrenia, the decreased AK suggests axonal damage; however, the increased RD indicates myelin impairment. These findings suggest that diffusion and kurtosis parameters could provide complementary information and they should be jointly used to reveal pathological changes in schizophrenia.NeuroImage. Clinical. 01/2015; 7:170-6.