Article

Optimized efficient liver T(1ρ) mapping using limited spin lock times.

Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.
Physics in Medicine and Biology (Impact Factor: 2.92). 03/2012; 57(6):1631-40. DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/57/6/1631
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT T(1ρ) relaxation has recently been found to be sensitive to liver fibrosis and has potential to be used for early detection of liver fibrosis and grading. Liver T(1ρ) imaging and accurate mapping are challenging because of the long scan time, respiration motion and high specific absorption rate. Reduction and optimization of spin lock times (TSLs) are an efficient way to reduce scan time and radiofrequency energy deposition of T(1ρ) imaging, but maintain the near-optimal precision of T(1ρ) mapping. This work analyzes the precision in T(1ρ) estimation with limited, in particular two, spin lock times, and explores the feasibility of using two specific operator-selected TSLs for efficient and accurate liver T(1ρ) mapping. Two optimized TSLs were derived by theoretical analysis and numerical simulations first, and tested experimentally by in vivo rat liver T(1ρ) imaging at 3 T. The simulation showed that the TSLs of 1 and 50 ms gave optimal T(1ρ) estimation in a range of 10-100 ms. In the experiment, no significant statistical difference was found between the T(1ρ) maps generated using the optimized two-TSL combination and the maps generated using the six TSLs of [1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50] ms according to one-way ANOVA analysis (p = 0.1364 for liver and p = 0.8708 for muscle).

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Yì-Xiáng Wáng, Dec 10, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
123 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: T(1ρ) relaxation is traditionally described as a mono-exponential signal decay with spin-lock time. However, T(1ρ) quantification by fitting to the mono-exponential model can be substantially compromised in the presence of field inhomogeneities, especially for low spin-lock frequencies. The normal approach to address this issue involves the development of dedicated composite spin-lock pulses for artifact reduction while still using the mono-exponential model for T(1ρ) fitting. In this work, we propose an alternative approach for improved T(1ρ) quantification with the widely-used rotary echo spin-lock pulses in the presence of B(0) inhomogeneities by fitting to a modified theoretical model which is derived to reveal the dependence of T(1ρ)-prepared magnetization on T(1ρ), T(2ρ), spin-lock time, spin-lock frequency and off-resonance, without involving complicated spin-lock pulse design. It has potentials for T(1ρ) quantification improvement at low spin-lock frequencies. Improved T(1ρ) mapping was demonstrated on phantom and in vivo rat spin-lock imaging at 3 T compared to the mapping using the mono-exponential model.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 07/2012; 57(15):5003-16. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/57/15/5003 · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spin-lattice relaxation in the rotating frame, or T(1ρ) relaxation, is normally described by a mono-exponential decay model. However, compartmentation of tissues and microscopic molecular exchange may lead to bi-exponential or multi-exponential T(1ρ) relaxation behavior in certain tissues under the application of spin lock pulse field strength. To investigate the presence of bi-exponential T(1ρ) relaxations in in-vivo rat head tissues of brain and muscle. Five Sprague-Dawley rats underwent T(1ρ) imaging at 3T. A B(1)-insensitive rotary echo spin lock pulse was used for T(1ρ) preparation with a spin lock frequency of 500Hz. Twenty-five T(1ρ)-weighted images with spin lock times ranging from 1 to 60 ms were acquired using a 3D spoiled gradient echo sequence. Image intensities over different spin lock times were fitted using mono-exponential as well as bi-exponential models both on region-of-interest basis and pixel-by-pixel basis. F-test with a significance level P value of 0.01 was used to evaluate whether bi-exponential model gave a better fitting than mono-exponential model. In rat brains, only mono-exponential but no apparent bi-exponential T(1ρ) relaxation (~70-71 ms) was found. In contrast, bi-exponential T(1ρ) relaxation was observed in muscles of all five rats (P < 10(-4)). A longer and a shorter T(1ρ) relaxation component were extracted to be ~37- ~41 ms (a fraction of ~80- ~88%) and ~9- ~11 ms (~12-20%), compared to the normal single T(1ρ) relaxation of ~30- ~33 ms. Bi-exponential relaxation components were detected in rat muscles. The long and the short T(1ρ) relaxation component are thought to correspond to the restricted intracellular water population and the hydrogen exchange between amine and hydroxyl groups, respectively.
    Acta Radiologica 07/2012; 53(6):675-81. DOI:10.1258/ar.2012.120108 · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The chemical exchange (CE) process has been exploited as a novel and powerful contrast mechanism for MRI, which is primarily performed in the form of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging. A spin-lock (SL) technique can also be used for CE studies, although traditionally performed and interpreted quite differently from CEST. Chemical exchange imaging with spin-lock technique (CESL), theoretically based on the Bloch-McConnell equations common to CEST, has the potential to be used as an alternative to CEST and to better characterize CE processes from slow and intermediate to fast proton exchange rates through the tuning of spin-lock pulse parameters. In this study, the Z-spectrum and asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio (MTR(asym)) obtained by CESL are theoretically analyzed and numerically simulated using a general two-pool R(1ρ) relaxation model beyond the fast-exchange limit. The influences of spin-lock parameters, static magnetic field strength B(0) and physiological properties on the Z-spectrum and MTR(asym) are quantitatively revealed. Optimization of spin-lock frequency and spin-lock duration for the maximum CESL contrast enhancement is also investigated. Numerical simulation results in this study are compatible with the findings in the existing literature on CE imaging studies.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 11/2012; 57(24):8185-8200. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/57/24/8185 · 2.92 Impact Factor