Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance in Crohn's colitis.
ABSTRACT To assess colonoscopic screening and surveillance for detecting neoplasia in patients with long-standing colonic Crohn's disease (CD).
Colonoscopy and biopsy records from patients with colonic CD were evaluated at the Cedars-Sinai Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center during a 17-year period (1992-2009).
Overall, 904 screening and surveillance examinations were performed on 411 patients with Crohn's colitis (mean 2.2 examinations per patient). The screening and surveillance examinations detected neoplasia in 5.6% of the patient population; 2.7% had low-grade dysplasia (LGD) (n=11), 0.7% had high-grade dysplasia (HGD) (n=3), and 2.2% had carcinoma (anal carcinoma n=3; rectal carcinoma n=6). Mean age of CD diagnosis was 25.6±0.8 years in those with normal examinations, compared to 17.7±2.7 years (p<0.001) in those with HGD, 36.85±1.43 in those with LGD (p=0.021) and 28.32±3.24 years in those with any dysplasia/cancer (p=0.034). Disease duration in patients with normal examinations was 19.1±0.5 years, compared to 36.8±4.4 years (p<0.001) in HGD, 16.88±2.59 in those with LGD (p=0.253) and 30.68±4.03 years in those with any dysplasia/cancer (p=0.152). The mean interval between examinations was higher in HGD (31.5±9.4 months) compared to those with normal colonoscopies (12.92±1.250 months; p=0.002).
We detected cancer or dysplasia in 5.6% of patients with long-standing Crohn's colitis enrolled in a screening and surveillance program. Younger age at diagnosis of CD, longer disease course, and greater interval between exams were risk factors for the development of dysplasia.